The autoclave is a device used in medicine, cosmetology, cooking, large and small industries, as well as at home. Due to the fact that you can get high quality products from the autoclave, they are popular all over the world. There are different types of this mechanism, they are produced under different brands. But in order to get a truly worthwhile thing that will allow you to make a variety of dishes, you should understand the principle of operation of this device, its varieties and features.
What is an autoclave for home canning
An autoclave is a heat treatment apparatus that is hermetically sealed during operation. In cooking, it is used for the preparation of fish, canned meat, vegetable, fruit preparations. To obtain canned food in an autoclave or any other type of preservation, the device is installed, started, and it works under a pressure of 4.5-5.5 atmospheres and temperatures up to 125 ° C.
Photo Autoclave NikolderImportant! In the autoclave, blanks are made in glass containers and in tin containers.
The principle of operation of the autoclave is quite simple. It is known that water boils at 100 ° С and it simply cannot heat up more strongly. Reaching 100 degrees, it just turns into steam. But, if you increase the pressure, the boiling point of water will increase. At a temperature of 100 ° C, steam though will be formed, but in much smaller quantities. And the home autoclave works. The water in it is heated to the formation of steam, but due to the tightness of the apparatus, it does not leave the container and therefore the pressure inside increases. As a result, the water does not quickly begin to boil, and does not evaporate. And since the temperature inside the autoclave can reach +125 ° C, the bacteria die. So preservation is cooked much faster, with better quality and taste does not deteriorate.
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Varieties of autoclaves a lot. The first such device was manufactured in 1679. Since that time, many analogues have been invented, each of which had its own positive and negative sides. Today, autoclaves are classified according to shape (vertical, column, horizontal), according to the location of the working chamber (immovable, swinging, rotating). But most often when buying a device, buyers pay attention to what the device works from, from electricity or from gas.
Photo Autoclave Kid Nerzh with ECU
Such devices work thanks to built-in heating elements, that is, they are powered from the network. Among the advantages of these devices it is necessary to highlight: a quick cooking process, a thermostat, a convenient lid, mobility. It is easy to transfer such home autoclave mono from place to place, to load, it greatly simplifies the work.
- "Nikolderzh" Available in different sizes. There are also compact ones of 14 liters each and large ones up to 40 liters. heater power - 2.5 kW. The package includes high-quality manometer, thermometer, nipple and explosive valve.
- "Prodmashservice" produces autoclaves of different volumes, including professional ones, on 450 l. Used to sterilize tin and glass containers. Power - 25.1 kW. The maximum temperature is 140 ° C.
- "Kid Nerzh with ECU" - 22 l. Stainless capacity. It can be set up to 14 cans of 0.5 liters. has several modes of cooking, heating and work is carried out through the programs laid down. After completion of the operation, the device switches off the heating itself and resets the water.
- "Good Heat" - A company that produces high-quality autoclaves. In the model "Autoclave TEN" heater power 1.25 kW. Managed by automation. Tank capacity 17 liters, pressure up to 1.5 bar.
Photo Autoclave Good Heat
So the choice is considerable, the main thing before buying is to check all the important points, including energy consumption, good condition and integrity of parts.Important! During the selection of an autoclave, it is necessary to check its quality, carefully inspect all the details, their strength, reliability, so that in the future the device will not let down.
The peculiarity of these devices is an affordable price, but they are not as popular as electrical ones. They can work from electric, gas stoves, and some can even be used on a fire! They are of different volumes and most often such autoclaves are chosen for home canning.
The most popular models of gas autoclaves:
- "Autoclave Bulat" - 20 liters. Differs reinforced ribs. The maximum pressure is 1.5 atm, the maximum working temperature is 120 ° C. Weight - 8.5 kg, without cans. Dimensions - 317h395 mm. Holds up to 14 cans of 0.5 liters at a time.
Photo Autoclave Bulat
- "Belarus Suite" Available in 18, 24 and 30 liters. High quality, with protective enamel. Included is a thermometer, pressure relief valve. Temperature - 100-120 ° C. In a 24 liter autoclave, you can hold 14 half-liter cans.
- "Autoclave Belarus" volume of 30 liters. Holds 18 cans of 0.5 liters. Comes with a pressure gauge and safety valve. Used in everyday life. Suitable for canning fruits, vegetables, fish and meat. For heating, a gas, electric stove, gas stove or fire is used. Dimensions - 650x330 mm. Temperature range 113-120 ° С, pressure - 0.45 MPa.
Here you can also turn on the autoclave "Smoke", "NOVOGAS" and "Robin 2 in 1".
Instructions for the use of a home autoclave
When working with an autoclave for home canning, you must follow some rules.
- Banks before filling are always washed, but not sterilized.
- During the filling of cans with products, they leave about 2-3 cm from the neck, because during cooking, they can increase in volume.
- If there is a cassette in the device configuration, then initially the banks put it on it, and then it is lowered into the autoclave. If there is none, then the containers are simply put into the autoclave.
- You can install the banks in one row or put one bank on another, if there is a lot of conservation.
Photo Autoclave Belarus Suite
- When pouring water it is important to monitor its level. The upper edge should be 3-4 cm higher and should not reach the edge of the chamber of the autoclave by 5-6 cm. Do not forget that the banks put in the water preheated to 60 ° C, and if the vegetables or meat in the banks already hotter, then the water temperature in the autoclave should be 70-90 ° C.
- It remains only to tightly close the lid and set the temperature.
- After cooking, turn off the heat. In gas devices, water is drained through the faucet, while in electric devices, an acoustic signal is first expected, and then the pressure is released by the check valve and conserved. Only after the tape has cooled, can it be removed from the cans.
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Stew in an autoclave and canned watermelon are cooked at different temperatures and different amounts of time. The required temperature and preparation time for preservation depend on the size of the cans and the type of food. As a rule, the instructions for the autoclave indicate the time of preparation of various types of preservation, and the time of operation of the apparatus. Below is a table with temperature and sterilization time for gas autoclaves.
|Name of canned food||The volume of banks, l||Sterilization temperature, ° C||Duration of sterilization, min.|
|Canned vegetables in an autoclave||0,35||100||10|
Observing the temperature and cooking time, presented in the table, you can prepare excellent preservation of a variety of ingredients.
Advantages and disadvantages of the autoclave
Working with an autoclave can seem difficult, long and even dangerous if there is no practice. But in fact, if you get a handle, this device can greatly simplify the summer and autumn conservation.
Photo Autoclave Belarus
The benefits of using an autoclave.
- In the autoclave, you can handle a variety of blanks, from watermelon and sweet cherries to stew.
- Work with the device is not long. It takes no more than 30 minutes to install, load canned food and turn on, the rest of the work it does itself, it remains only to finish the preservation time and hide it.
- The dimensions of the instruments vary, but on average, about 14 cans of 0.5 liters fit into one household autoclave.
- The shelf life of preservation made in an autoclave increases several times.
- Cooking is faster, for example, in the case of meat or fish stew, and the taste is pleasant.
- The amount of vitamins and minerals during such processing is preserved more than in the case of cooking. Canned food is prepared in its own juice or in water, but in sealed containers, so this method of cooking is considered the most useful.
Manufacturers note that autoclaves do not have flaws or are difficult to identify because they are very beneficial in terms of canning. However, after repeated use, users still highlight a number of problems of these devices, which must be considered when choosing. Of course, it is impossible to talk about all autoclaves, but below is a list of the most frequent problems faced by users.
- The quality of modern electrical appliances is quite low.
- Large weight of many devices.
- The cassette's short stud thread, or simply the poor quality of the material.
- Inconvenient measuring sensors.
- Rattling while heating the appliance.
- Many devices have limited use (for example, only for vegetables, and the stew in an autoclave does not work).
The autoclave for home canning is a convenient device for cooking conservation. You can try out the recipe for braised meat and canned peas. The main thing is to understand the use and follow the instructions during operation.