Soybean meal is a by-product obtained during the production of soybean oil. Differs rich protein composition. Soy meal, as well as cake is very popular in agriculture. It is added to feed for pigs, cattle, birds, and even rabbits. This article describes the soybean meal, its composition, useful and harmful properties, as well as the rate of inclusion in the diet of agricultural animals.
What is Soybean Meal
Soy meal is obtained by squeezing oil from soybean seeds. The oil is separated using organic solvents. After the separation of the oil remains a fibrous mass, in which vegetable fats contain up to 5%. After that, the resulting substance is allowed to moisture-heat treatment. For animals, it is used as a concentrated feed, with an abundance of protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals in the composition.
Often soy meal is confused with the cake. They are really similar and both come from soy. But if the cake is extracted by mechanical extraction of oil from soy, the meal is obtained by chemical separation of oil. Meal has a longer shelf life, so they like to buy it in bulk. This is financially beneficial and convenient on a large farm.
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Soy meal contains many amino acids, vitamins, minerals and almost half consists of protein. The composition can only slightly change in the presence of impurities.
The composition of soybean meal
- Protein - up to 46%;
- Fat - 2.5%;
- Maximum humidity - 12%;
- Lysine - 28.4 g / kg;
- Methionine and cystine - 14.2 g / kg;
- Threonine - 20 g / kg;
- Caloric content - 2630.0 kcal / kg.
1 kg of product contains on average:
- potassium - 17 g;
- calcium - 2 g;
- phosphorus - 6.5 g;
- sulfur - 4.5 g;
- magnesium, 3.3 g;
- iron - 163 mg;
- zinc - 45 mg;
- manganese - 40 mg;
- copper - 19 mg;
- iodine - 0.5 mg;
- cobalt - 0.2 mg.
The product also contains vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B12.
Types of soybean meal
Depending on the appearance according to GOST R 53799-2010, soybean meal is divided into two types.
Photo of toasted soybean meal
- Toasted - brown meal, a bit like sawdust. It is free-flowing, represented by a homogeneous mixture. According to GOST, it should have a normal smell, without impurities of rot, mold, etc. Most often it is packaged in bags and also sold. It is easy to find such forage meal on sale, but that it did not spoil it is important to store it from moisture!
- Granulated is a feed meal, which is pressed into pellets with a diameter of 6.0-20.0 mm and a length of 10-26 mm before release. It is much more convenient in terms of transportation, packaging, but it costs more.
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For pigs, goats, cows, the most diverse poultry and other farm animals, soybean meal is one of the best feedstuffs of plant origin. There are several weighty points to its main qualities.
- On nutritional value, it is close to animal proteins, and due to its low level of fiber, it is quickly and easily digested.
- Kuram soybean meal is very useful because it stimulates egg production.
- Turkeys and broilers on this feed grow and develop faster.
- For pigs, cattle such feed is indispensable. It strengthens the immune system, increases weight.
Photos of granulated soybean meal
- Due to the nutritional value of the meal, when added to the main feed, its consumption is reduced, and the animals are more quickly saturated.
- Due to heat treatment, it has a pleasant aroma and is eaten with pleasure by agricultural animals.
- The content of vitamins, amino acids, minerals in it is higher than in other types of meal or cake.
But this product has some negative sides.
- Only meal or soybean meal can be given to animals and birds, and not fresh soybeans. It itself contains many toxins, is poorly digested and does more harm than good.
- Kuram soybean meal is fed in strict dosage. If you give it in an amount of more than 30% by weight of feed per day, then gout can develop or diarrhea begins.
- Farm animals are fed only fresh soybean meal. If it is covered with mold, it is dangerous to eat!
Soybean meal application
Used soybean meal in animal husbandry, as the basis for most of the various feed for agricultural animals. On average, for the manufacture of animal feed, in addition to the other components, the meal is added at least 5% and more than 25% of the total mass.
Kuram soybean meal is very useful because it stimulates egg production.Interesting! Argentina - one of the leaders among the countries in the export of soybean meal.
Below is a table with approximate rates of soybean meal in feeding a variety of rural animals and birds.
|Pigs (young and adults)||Up to 15%|
|Fattening pigs (first period)||To 10 %|
|Fattening pigs (second period)||Up to 5%|
|Bacon fattening pigs||To 10%|
|Young cattle up to a year||Up to 20%|
|Young cattle older than a year||Up to 25%|
|Cows bulls||Up to 25%|
|Cattle for fattening||Up to 15%|
|Sheep and lambs up to 4 months||Up to 20%|
|Sheep manufacturers and sheep older than 4 months||To 10%|
Such norms are recommended to be observed so that the animals do not have negative symptoms from overeating soybean meal, because the benefit of the product is observed only if the measure is observed.
How to store meal
Store soy meal in bags, in bulk or in containers. The room for the product is chosen dry, clean. Prior to installation, it is advisable to carry out disinfection so that pests do not start in the product.
If bags are used for storage, they should be put on special racks, pallets, so that they do not touch the floor. The room where soybean meal is stored must be aired on time, ensure that direct sunlight does not fall on the food. It can not be placed near batteries, heaters and other sources of heat, so as not to heat up.
Soybean processing provides many valuable products. Soy meal is distinguished by its high nutritional value and abundance of vitamins and minerals. If possible, it is advisable to purchase it and add it to feed for pigs, poultry, cattle. Animals that receive it in feed, grow quickly, develop properly and do not gain weight. But, of course, in order not to harm the living creatures, it is necessary to comply with the norm and not give soybean meal over measure.