Unpredictable spring weather can greatly delay the planting of major garden crops. As a result, the crop ripens later. Experienced gardeners, knowing this, use warm beds for growing many garden crops. Despite the fact that warm beds require proper arrangement, certain forces in terms of care, they pay for the gardener's work, allowing you to get great, early yields even in cool climatic regions.
What are warm beds
In the gardens, sooner or later the land becomes poorer. So that the yield does not decrease, various methods of enrichment are used. Warm beds are one of the modern methods used in all regions where it is possible to grow cultivated plants. The method of warm beds invented by Igor Lyadov. He also took the idea from American Jacob Mittlider, slightly improving it. In contrast to the American type of growing vegetables according to the method of Jacob Mittlider, Igor Lyadov’s beds are fed not from mineral fertilizers, but from organic matter incorporated into its foundation.
In a greenhouse on a warm bed you can grow crops even in the frosty winter.
A warm bed is distinguished by the fact that under it there is an organic filling, which provides it with warmth and useful substances as it decomposes. Although, if funds allow, you can make a warm bed by laying heating cables or pipes (this is often done in greenhouses). They will not give food, but on such land it is possible to grow crops even in the frosty winter.
This bed has several layers. At the very bottom of the stack branches, then plant waste and on top of fertile soil. Organic matter, when it decays, produces heat, so the earth warms over it. The plants grow faster there, the seeds sprout earlier.
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Warm beds are easy to do with your own hands, they can be made high, in the form of a hill or recessed. A high bed is distinguished by the fact that in it the ground level is elevated above the main ground level by 20-50 cm on average. Such beds have sides so that the earth does not crumble on the sides.It is important! In winter, warm beds are covered with black agrofibre or film so that weeds do not grow on them.
How to make a high bed
To make such a bed, you must first determine the size and place where the bed will be located. Right on the site going to the box of the future design. If the box is wooden, it can be sheathed from the inside with a film so that the wood stays longer. In addition, this covering will allow more moisture to keep in the ground.
At the bottom of the frame is laid metal mesh or simple construction. She will be able to protect the crop from some insects and rodents. Now you need to fill the box. To do this, organic matter and garden soil are stacked in layers, everything is well watered above. When the earth is compacted it can be filled to the desired level.
How to make a bed-hill with your own hands
Garden beds are made almost in level with the soil on the site. This is an unformed type of bed, with no sides, although at will they can be made to mark the boundaries.
First of all, a ditch of the required width and length is dug out at the site. Approximate dimensions 300x180 cm, but they can be adjusted as desired. The depth of the ditch is 30 cm on average. At the very bottom of the construction mesh is laid with small cells.
How to make a bed-hill with your own hands
To keep the bed warm, large, then small twigs and organic, decaying materials are laid on the net, which produce heat as they rot. That is, a pit is first made, a heater is placed in it and organic matter is poured, then the pit is filled with simple garden soil. It can be taken from the site or poured purchase. The land is covered with a small hillock. In the middle of the hill is always higher, and at the edges sloping.
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The recessed bed is usually located just below the ground level on the plot. To make it, dig a hole of the required size. The form can be any, but the most convenient - square or rectangular. Immediately marked bumpers. In a recessed bed, we cannot do without sides, otherwise the earth will crumble. For the sides, you can use slate, special plastic boards, wooden boards and so on.
If the earth is clay, then it is necessary to lay a layer of drainage a few centimeters at the bottom. And if the ground is peaty or sandy and the moisture quickly goes away, a layer of sawdust, natural fabric or something similar is placed at the bottom to hold water.
Features of the recessed bed
At the very bottom are placed first wooden logs, and then small branches. After that you can fill the organic layer. Now everything is a little tamped, watered and poured on top of fertile soil. The thickness of the final layer should not be less than 15 cm. If the cultures that will be planted here have a deep root system, then the layer is made much larger.
Warm beds in the greenhouse
In the greenhouses warm beds often settle down. They can be done through electrical heating, water heating or biological heating. Biological heating is the most profitable. It is not only cheap, but also allows you to remove weeds from the site, fallen leaves, having benefited from them. As the decomposition of organic matter nourishes the earth and heats it.Important! As a biofuel, you can use manure, but not fresh, since it can greatly increase the temperature of the earth and just burn the roots of plants.
Warm beds in the greenhouse
They make warm beds in the greenhouse, as well as on the street. To do this, lay out the frame, put on the bottom of large, then small branches. On top of the branches sprinkle organic. These can be leaves, weeds, tops of crops, wastes like fallen apples or leftover vegetables. You can also take humus, horse manure. Top organic matter is covered with earth. Everything, a bed is ready and can be used for cultivation of cultural plants.
Advantages and disadvantages of warm beds
Warm beds have positive and negative qualities. To understand what exactly will be most beneficial in certain conditions, it is necessary to get acquainted with their qualities and problems in advance. For a start it is worth deciding on the positive sides.
- On warm beds, the crop always ripens at times faster than on normal ones, if you properly arrange care.
- It is a pleasure to care for warm, and above all high beds. They always look neat, with defined, clear boundaries. The land is slightly raised, it is much easier to remove weeds, mulch the earth or care for the plants themselves.
- On the site the problem with the tracks disappears. And if you put black agrofibre or film, and put gravel on top, you won't need to care for the tracks at all.
- On the high beds just attach the arc for the subsequent shelter film. Such small greenhouses produce an even earlier harvest. To care for them, simply lift a little film, and then lower it again.
- Just alternate cultures, observing crop rotation.
- On a high bed you can make any type of soil that is required. Even if on a plot of solid sand, a good, fertile soil can be brought to a warmed garden bed and protected with sides so that the earth is not washed out!
- For warm beds, much less fertilizer is needed because they are fed from the lower organic layer.
In the second year, you can plant tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini
Now, about the shortcomings.
- To a warm bed has benefited, it must be properly done. But, materials cost money, and time, effort, it will take quite a lot. This stops many young gardeners.
- High beds can overheat in summer and dry out. For plants, this is undesirable, because hot earth, like dry, can cause crops to dry out or simply brew in the ground. So it is necessary to keep an eye on it all the time, to water it in time, to darken the earth from the scorching sun.
- This bed also requires care, as well as a simple vegetable garden. If you abandon it, there will be a lot of weeds in it, there is little use and the harvest will not be pleased with its abundance.
- Water can be consumed very much. If you make a high bed in the southern, warm regions, it will consume a lot of water. In this case, the soil dries out quickly, especially in the corners and at the edges, the top layer dries quickly, so this can be a real problem.
What to plant on a warm garden bed
The maximum benefit, without organic fertilizer, warm bed gives the first 4 years. Then you need to make a new organic to provide food and heat for plants. Sometimes the entire soil layer is also completely replaced. But what kind of plants can be grown on such land.
In the first year of the arrangement, plants are planted in a warm garden, requiring a lot of heat and nutrition. It can be pumpkin crops, zucchini. For cucumbers such land is also suitable.Important! In the first 2 years after arranging a warm bed, it is not necessary to plant lettuce, radishes, beets in it, because they accumulate a lot of nitrates.
In the second year, the nutrition of the garden is enough for cucumbers, zucchini. You can also plant tomatoes and cabbage in such land.
In the third year on a warm bed you can define beans, sweet peppers, spicy, tomatoes, cabbage. Carrots, lettuce, potatoes and beets will also grow well this year.
By the fourth year, the land is already significantly poorer, so it is impossible to manage without additional dressings. To get a good harvest, it is necessary to plant undemanding crops, such as peas, greenery and the like.
Warm beds can greatly facilitate the process of growing garden crops. On such beds you can plant a variety of plants, from strawberries to potatoes, and they also give good yields. But even such a nutrient medium does not cancel the rules of caring for plants. Processing from pests, diseases, mulching, weeding, watering and many other procedures should be carried out in time to get a bountiful harvest.