In the production of sugar from sugar beets get a lot of by-products that are used for feeding farm animals. Beet pulp is one of these by-products. In agriculture, it is highly valued for its nutritional value, high content of useful substances, and relatively low cost.
What is beet pulp
Beet pulp is a by-product of sugar beet processing. But to figure out what it is, you need to understand exactly how it is received. After the sugar beet goes into production, it is washed, ground, and diffused to wash the sugar. Juice, with dissolved sugar, is separated from crushed beet (pulp). This is the main product of sugar beet processing, but not the only one.
After separation, the sugar liquid is cleaned and evaporated to a syrup state. Sugar then crystallizes from the syrup. The syrup residue is molasses, another byproduct of production that is very valuable.
Interesting! During the processing, about 35 kg of sugar, 540 g of raw pulp and 40 kg of molasses are obtained from a ton of sugar beet.
Beet pulp and molasses are supplied to other industries, where they are made into feed for agricultural animals. Such feed can be produced in three main types - raw, dry and granulated (molasses).
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According to GOST R 52304-2005, there are only three main types of beet pulp: raw pulp, dry and molasses.
The composition of beet pulp
- Raw beet pulp - it is beet chips, from which sugar has already been extracted, and part of the water. Dry matter in such feed is 20-30%. It is used fresh or in ensiled for feeding to pigs and cattle. Fresh beet pulp chips are used for 1-3 days, then it spoils. In order to keep the raw material longer, it is ensiled - fill the tank for ensiling, press, cork, so that no air gets inside.
- Dry beet pulp - This is the same beet chips, purified from sugar. But, in order to get it, raw pulp is subjected to processing in order to almost completely remove moisture. The dry matter in this feed is approximately 90%. It is easy to transport, it is convenient to use, it can be stored for a long time.
- Molasses pulp - This is a granulated beet pulp. To make it in factories molasses mixed with raw pulp and dried. The resulting mass is pressed into large granules (usually up to 12 mm) and put on sale. This product contains much more energy than fresh or dry pulp. It is well absorbed by animals, but it should be noted that such feed contains from 13 to 28% sugar, depending on how much molasses has been introduced. Granulated beet pulp can be sold in large or small granules.
Granulated beet pulp
Granulated beet pulp is a natural food, often used in farms specializing in the cultivation of farm animals. The composition of the pulp includes such useful components as cellulose, pectic substances, Himcellulose, protein, trace elements. Granulated beet pulp contains some sugar. Dried beet pulp is usually directly on the factories for the production of sugar.
The main use of this type of pulp is food on cattle farms. Sometimes livestock farms purchase granulated beet pulp in its pure form. But most of this product is still supplied to the enterprises engaged in the manufacture of animal feed. The value of pulp as a feed additive used in the production of cattle lies primarily in its nutritional value and ability to strengthen the body of animals to some extent. After all, in addition to proteins, this product contains a large amount of vitamins and beneficial trace elements. In terms of nutritional value, beet pulp occupies a middle position between oats and meadow hay.
The granulated beet pulp is thus even more nutritious than hay. One hundred kilograms of this feed are equivalent to 85 feed units. Not only ordinary granulated dried pulp, but also enriched with amidominerals, is very often found on the market. 100 kg of this product contains 71-76 feed units. At the same time, there are more proteins in the pulp of such a variety.
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Beet pulp has many positive qualities, which are valued by farmers.
- It is nutritious, rich in vitamins, trace elements.
- Well digested by animals.
- It has a pleasant taste - agricultural animals eat it with great appetite.
- Dry mixes are easy to store.
- The use of this feed completely pays for itself.
The composition of molasses pulpInteresting! Granulated beet pulp is a good sorbent. 1 kg of dry matter binds up to 3 liters of fluid. Therefore, it is often ensiled in order that the grass juice does not evaporate. During silage, grass is layered with layers of molasses pulp. The result is a very valuable, nutritious food.
This product has few disadvantages, but they can bring certain inconveniences.
- If the dosage is incorrect, the taste may change, the quality of the milk produced may cause diarrhea in the young, so the dosage should be checked by weights!
- Fresh pulp can be stored for no more than 3 days, it spoils very quickly.
- Granulated beet pulp must be soaked before serving, and this takes time.
Application of pulp
Beet pulp is a useful food for farm animals. It is not only energetically valuable, but also contains many vitamins, minerals. Unlike analogs, this type of food is easily and quickly absorbed by young and adult individuals. The product is very beneficial to use for feeding agricultural poultry, especially since its price is not high.
Pulp can be used for feeding pigs, cows, goats, sheep, horses. Rabbits can also eat it, but they are given such an additive as vitamins - 2-3 times a month. If given more often, there may be problems with the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
- For cows it is very important to get a lot of root crops with food. Beet pulp is cheaper than fresh beets, but no less nutritious, so it is often given instead of root vegetables. Cattle is growing rapidly and gaining muscle mass, with regular use of beet supplements. Females begin to produce more milk yields. Even the taste of meat and milk obtained from these animals will be better if in their diet beet pulp is a regular supplement.
- For pigs, piglets, a similar additive to the daily ration allows stabilizing the microflora in the cicatricial tissues. In turn, this is the prevention of acidosis, gluttony and, in addition, activates the elimination of toxins from the body.
- For horses, this feed is an excellent supplement. It reduces the acidity of the stomach. Pectin creates a protective film. The body begins to work properly, the intestine is protected from harmful bacteria, the environment for the development of beneficial microorganisms is normalized.
- Goats, sheep can eat beet pulp of any type in the winter when there are not enough nutritious foods, like fresh grass. This additive improves the quality of wool, increases milk yield.
How much to give pulp
Maximum cottage beet pulp in the diet of dairy cattle
Beet pulp is a nutritional supplement, not the main feed for animals. Therefore, you need to know how much to give his animals every day.
In the case when fresh pulp is produced, the dosages are as follows:
- daily rate for cattle - 50-60 kg;
- for dairy cows - 30-40 kg;
- pigs, sheep, goats consume about 6.5-8 kg of pulp.
- cattle - 5-6 kg;
- dairy cows, calves - 3-4 kg;
- pigs, goats, sheep - 650-800 g / day.
But there are some nuances.
- If there are potatoes in the diet, then the amount of pulp should be no more than 20%. If the potato is not added to the diet, the amount of the additive increases to 25%.
- If the animal has a bad reaction to the additive, it is immediately excluded. Due to the fact that it is generally possible, it is necessary to introduce beet pulp separately, in small quantities.
- When the beet pulp is given too much, the milk of animals begins to deteriorate much faster, turn sour, its coagulability and density change. Therefore, in this case it is better to give less than more.
- If a nursing female consumes a lot of beet pulp, the young may suffer from indigestion.
The percentage composition of dried pulp depending on the method of drying according to P.V. Golovin
If the pulp is delivered correctly, the average muscle mass gain in adults will be 890 g, and in young stock - 500-600 g. However, beet chips are fed only for a certain amount of time if it is given as an additive for fattening. For youngsters 1.5-2 years old, it is given 4 months, for individuals 2-4 years old - for 3.5 months, for animals older than 4 years old - 2.5-3 months.
How to store beet pulp
Proper storage allows you to use beet pulp for quite some time. If you do not comply with the rules, the product will quickly deteriorate and will be unsuitable for consumption by animals.
- Dry or granulated pulp can be stored in rooms with humidity up to 60%. At higher humidity, mold develops, pathogens, fungi, fodder dampen and deteriorate.
- The air temperature in the room should be within 0 ... +25 degrees. If it is higher, even dry food may start to turn sour, and if the temperature is lower, the food will just freeze.
- Stored dry and granulated beet pulp in simple bags. Rodents can start eating it only if they are very hungry and there is no alternative, because they don’t like the taste.
- Bags with pulp are usually placed on a hill of hay, wooden boards, and not on the floor, because it can be dirty, damp or just very cold.
If you need to store fresh pulp, then use cold rooms or refrigerators. But even in them the product does not deteriorate in just 3 days.
Beet pulp is a nutritional supplement used for livestock. It is natural, does not contain dangerous preservatives, and pays for its cost with weight gain and increased milk yields in cattle and pigs.