Among the unpretentious ornamental plants, gardeners distinguish Astilbe (Astilbe). It is simply grown, unpretentious in care and gives the most beautiful inflorescences. Due to the variety of varieties and types for each decorative plot, flower beds, you can choose the appropriate type. This article describes the characteristics of the plant, its varieties, and also describes in detail how Astilba is grown in open ground and what kind of care it needs.
Description of the plant Astilba
Photo of Astilba
Astilbe belongs to the Kamenelomkovy family. Its historical homeland is considered to be the territories of East Asia and America. The name of the plant Astilbe - can be translated as "very brilliant." It was given to the flower because of the shiny leaves. A bush-shaped culture grows in height from 20 cm to 2 m. It blooms in June-September.Interesting! Astilba is combined with many other plants. It looks good with lilies, crocuses, saxifrage, tulips, rhododendrons, etc.
Inflorescences are large and small - depending on the species. Their height ranges from 8 to 60 cm. The color of the buds is the most diverse: purple, pink, white, red, of any shades. Seeds are arranged in a small box. They are quite simple to collect, they are rarely used for planting.
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Photos of Korean Astilbe
Varieties of astilba a lot. The most commonly used classification by type of inflorescence. Astilbe is pyramidal, rhombic, paniculate, drooping. In addition, you can distinguish this plant by flowering period (early, medium, late). Often the culture is classified by height:
- tall - from 90 cm;
- sredneroslye - 60-90 cm;
- undersized - 30-60 cm;
- dwarf - up to 30 cm.
Below are the most common varieties of astilbe.
- "Astilba Prostolistnaya" blooms from July to August. She has unseparated leaves of simple form. The plate is green, glossy. Flowers white color, connected in a heap of pyramidal inflorescences. Grades: "Bronz Elegance", "Straussenfeder", "Preacox Alba".
- "Korean Astilbe" grows up to 60 cm. The leaves are shriveled, not dark, there are brown hairs. Inflorescence 25 cm, heap, with flowers cream color. It blooms in July.
- "Astilba naked" grows in a small bush. Flowers pink, appear in early or mid-summer. The leaves are green, but cast in a bronze color.
Photo Astilba naked
- "Chinese astilba" - perennial culture, rising to a meter. It has complex, tracery leaflets consisting of feathers. The leaves are glossy with visible veins and orange pile along the edge. Buds can be lilac, white or pink. They are small, located on long inflorescences (30 cm). It blooms from late June to early August. Grades: "Pumila", "Vision's Red", "Vision's White", "Superba".
- "Astilba David" tall species growing up to 150 cm. Leaves of a complex type, wrinkled, light green with dark veins. The buds are pink or lilac, grouped into pyramidal inflorescences up to 40 cm. The disclosure of flowers takes place in July-August.
- "Japanese astilba" - perennial up to 80 cm long. The leaves are dark green, pinnate, shiny, arranged on reddish petioles. The flowers are white or pink, rather small, collected in dense inflorescences of rhombic type, 30 cm long. Flowering occurs in July. Varieties: "Gladstone", "Plume", "Peach Blossom".
- "Astilba Thunberg" grows up to 80 cm. It stands out brown woody root. Oval-shaped leaflets, glossy, with notches along the edge. Flowers are white, gathered in apex inflorescences of apical type. It blooms from July to August. Grades: "Professor van der Vilen", "Strausnfeder".
Cultivation of astilba in open ground
Cultivation of astilba in open ground is recommended to carry out in the shade or in partial shade. Intense, constant flowering is usually observed when the plants are provided with a scattered shadow. The sun for varieties with dark flowers is contraindicated, but species with white or light pink buds can tolerate it, but only a few hours a day.Important! It is possible and even recommended to plant this plant where there is a high level of groundwater.
Astilbe is planted alone or in groups. It can also grow in containers, but usually it is still planted directly in open ground. Borders, alpine slides, areas between trees and shrubs, near decorative ponds - this plant can decorate almost any area on the site.
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Photo of Chinese astilbe
Astilbe can grow in one place only 5 years. This is the life of one bush. Then it must be transplanted or replaced. Astilba is usually propagated by three main methods:
- Kidney renewal - successful, but not the fastest method. In the spring, carefully cut pagons with a piece of rhizome from a plant, sprinkle cuts with ashes and put them under a film of a mixture of gravel and peat. About a year later, this plant will be strong enough to transplant to a permanent place. It is simply dug up and placed in the prepared hole.
- Dividing bush - simple and fast breeding option. Bush must be completely excavated, cut the leaves and split. Divided so that the individual delenki had at least 3-5 kidneys. The old, dead rhizome is cut out, the places of the cuts are covered with ashes. Now you can plant delenki in separate wells. If you plant them in the spring and water regularly, then by the fall you can wait for the first flowering.
- Seed propagation - painstaking, long and difficult method, which is used exclusively by breeders. The first step is to stratify the seeds, then sow them into a moist mixture, and only in spring, when seedlings appear, can they be transplanted into beds. The main problem of the method is that there are few seeds!
Now a little about how and when astilba is planted in open ground. The most favorable time for the procedure is from the end of March to the beginning of May. In the autumn, the crop can also be planted, but long before the first frosts, for example in September, otherwise the plant will not have time to take root and will die in the winter.
The depth of the pits for plants is 30 cm. The distance between the seedlings depends on the type of crop. Tall species are planted with a distance of 50 cm, and undersized enough and 30 cm between the bushes. In the pit for planting poured into a large handful of humus, mix it with the ground and watered. When water is absorbed, a bush is placed in this mud mixture and the roots are instilled. They always mulch over the landing, so that the moisture evaporates more slowly and the earth does not overheat.
The development of astilbe is largely dependent on the temperature and humidity of the earth, the air, so from the moment planting was completed, the plant can immediately take up or take a long time to take root. In some cases, if there is little water for him, the astilba may even fade.
Stock Foto Japanese astilbe
Proper care of this ornamental plant allows you to enjoy the lush color during the flowering period. But what kind of care needs astilba?
- One of the basic rules of care is constant watering. Astilba will not grow normally if the ground is dry. She needs constant hydration! If there is little water, the leaves will wither, and the flowers and inflorescences will become shallow.
- Top dressings bring annually for plentiful blossoming and maintenance of endurance of culture. Compost or peat is brought into dry land, and mineral complex fertilizers are put into wet ground. And when astilba ottsvetet, it is fed with phosphorus-potassium substances.
- The ground under this plant should always be wet. But because of the abundant humidity, fungal diseases, rot can begin to develop. To avoid this, it is worth regularly (several times a week) to loosen the soil.
- It is recommended to ensure that weeds do not grow with the plant. They inhibit the growth of astilbe, suck nutrients and moisture from the earth, and can also carry pests and diseases. So this moment should be closely monitored and pulled up all the weeds as they appear.
- Pruning plant is not needed. The bush itself forms a perfectly normal crown. But sometimes, it is still worth cutting dry leaves or flower stalks.
Pests and diseases
Photo of Astilba Thunberg
Astilba rarely gets sick, regardless of the type of soil. Even insects rarely settle on it. But there are a number of problems faced by flower growers.
- Nematode - parasitizes the culture, pulling them out of her juice. Manifested in the form of petioles thickening, deformation of shoots, leaves. The leaves curl, brown spots appear on their surface. It is impossible to treat culture from this pest. The method of struggle is only one - to dig and burn. And to prevent the appearance of the pest in other colors, you need to use strong insecticides.
- Pennitsa - cicadas that lay eggs on the plant. This slows the growth of the bush and the development of inflorescences. In addition, cicadas carry diseases, so it’s worth getting rid of. The main problem is that this pest is not afraid of most chemicals, so it has to be collected manually.
- Root rotting occurs when the land is marshy. Despite the fact that astilba likes moisture, the constant stagnation of water can lead to root decay. For prophylaxis, it is worthwhile to simply treat the culture before flowering with antiseptics and Bordeaux liquids, and also ensure that the ground is always loose.
- Slugs and crinkles may appear from time to time. For them, you can set a trap or simply collect manually.
Preparing for the winter
In autumn, when the cold comes, you need to take care that the bush could survive the cold. Preparing for winter is very simple and takes place in one day. Before the first frost, you just need to trim all the pagons. Pruning should be maximized, that is, either at the root or in such a way that only small stumps remain.
Cover astilba is not necessary, because it is a frost-resistant plant. She has enough snow as a covering material. But if there are concerns, you can cover the ground with peat, fallen leaves, spruce branches, grass, straw or other type of mulch.