In the production of spring wheat is not less valuable than winter. Its main quality is fast ripening and low sensitivity to soil type. Due to this, it is in great demand among farmers. The article describes the varieties of spring wheat, its characteristics and characteristics of cultivation.
Characteristics of spring wheat
Spring wheat is a herbaceous plant of the bluegrass family. It includes 20 species, popular in different parts of the world (depending on preferences in climate, cultivation). The most common types (in Eastern Europe and Western Asia) are considered soft bare and hard wheat, sharozer wheat popular in India, Persian in Syria, dwarf in Pakistan.
Young shoots of spring wheat
The root system is not very developed, there are some root germs, nodules that form adventitious roots. Before flowering, the root system ceases to develop. The stem is a long straw up to a meter in height, with long leaves on it. Inflorescences are spikelets (with segments and stem). In the ear there are several scaly flowers. Grains (they are the fruits of a plant) have a different mass, color and even type of shell for each variety.
Interesting! The spike of spring wheat can be gray, gold, beige or light burgundy. And the kernels are yellowish, light beige or with a red tint.
Spring wheat is somewhat different in appearance and quality from winter. For a start, this is a self-pollinated culture with a poorly developed root system. Its roots are not the best way to assimilate the substance of the soil, so fertilizing and rich land when planting are required. It is resistant only to a short decrease in temperature by more than -10 degrees. If the cold does not pass, then all the crops die.
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There is a lot of varieties of spring wheat, but not all of them are in demand among farmers. Below are the most popular varieties that have decent fertility and have excellent characteristics.
"Zlata" refers to the mid-early types of spring wheat. Maturation time up to 95 days. The pips are medium in size, vitreous 58-72%, protein 15%, gluten 35-38%. It has a high yield. 30.2-50.8 centners of wheat are produced per hectare. Advantages: high resistance to powdery mildew, rust, does not fall down, does not crumble after ripening.
"Lada" - soft, early variety of spring wheat. Maturation occurs in 2.5-3 months. This is an average height plant that can fall with a strong wind on the ground! Variety also does not tolerate long rains (when the harvest is almost ripe). Grains oval shape, closer to red. Advantages: resistance to powdery mildew, high yield (up to 37 kg / ha). Needs timely harvesting, because it can crumble.
"Daria" - early hybrid of spring wheat. It can be grown in central or southern Russia and countries with a similar climate. The stem is upright with a beautiful spikelet shape. Grains are golden, rounded oval. Disadvantages: a weak stem, can often be affected by rust, there is a tendency to lodging. Advantages: the variety is resistant to septoria, has excellent grain quality - first grade. The yield of 30 kg / ha.
"Irgina" - high-yielding, early variety of spring wheat, which is most often grown in warm, southern regions. Refers to a soft mind. Plants do not lie down, but need timely cleaning. Maturation occurs in 3 months. Up to 39 centners of high-quality grain are harvested from each hectare of crops.
"Prioksky" - soft wheat of spring type. Ripens on average over 90 days, although it happens before and gives the crop. Spikelet elongated with reddish, rounded grains. The yield per hectare reaches 45 centners, but this variety needs proper care. The main drawback is that there is no immunity to bacterial diseases and the variety is afraid of drought.
It is recommended to sow spring wheat in certain, short time. Work is carried out as soon as the snow melts and the earth warms up a little. Depending on the region and climatic features, this time may fall on a different period of spring. But if you do not have time to sow the grain at this time, you can not expect a good harvest in time.
Spring Wheat Trizo in the photo
Important! Spring wheat grows well on weakly alkaline or neutral soil. But on sour soil, it never gives a rich harvest.
Spring wheat is sown, as a rule, by two methods - cross and narrow. Plants sown by such methods are usually more resistant to lodging than those sown in a simple, ordinary way. The seeding rate in different areas and in certain varieties may differ. It should also be borne in mind that spring wheat of soft species is smaller than the grain of durum varieties, therefore its norm is always less than that of hard spring wheat. On average, about 120-160 kg of wheat per hectare, although in some cases up to 250 kg of grains per hectare is required.
The depth of seeding of grains on different ground is different. So, in the chernozem close up the wheat at 3-5 cm, and on the loose (sandy, sandy) at 6-8 cm.
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The method of cultivation of spring wheat depends on the region, soil type, crop varieties and many other factors.
Spring wheat photo
Dry ground for wheat is destructive, if we are talking about spring varieties. Humidity should be maintained at 65-75%.
After sowing, rolling is carried out. This is a mandatory procedure in the case of spring wheat.
After the emergence of seedlings make harrowing. The procedure is repeated once again during the period when 3-4 leaves will appear on the shoots.
Spring wheat weeds can be very depressing in contrast to winter varieties. In order for the yield to be high, it is necessary to sow the crop only on the land treated by weeds. In this case, herbicides and similar substances are good.
Pests (Swedish flies, sawflies, drinkers, thrips, aphids) can infect wheat, therefore from time to time crops are sprayed with special means for prophylaxis. Also, the treatment is carried out from diseases (Septoria, rust, powdery mildew). If you neglect these procedures, you can lose a significant part of the harvest, because some diseases and insects can destroy large plantations of cultivated plants!
Spring Wheat Yield
Harvesting is usually carried out when wheat reaches the stage of waxy ripeness of grain with a moisture content of 35-40%. A period without heavy rains is usually selected so that it is possible to work in the field. But in general, when the wheat has ripened, it is not necessary to collect it for a long time because the ears can fall, be eaten by pests, or a different problem will appear, so spring wheat is harvested, as well as sown - in a short time.
Spring wheat yields are high, subject to the rules of agricultural technology
Harvesters are used for harvesting. In general, wheat harvesting machines are selected depending on the economy, opportunities and needs. But, as a rule, such equipment is purchased, which can collect the entire wheat crop in 5-10 days at most!
Important! The negative factors that reduce the yield of spring wheat include drought, constant rain, strong winds, diseases and pests.
Spring wheat yields are high, subject to the rules of agricultural technology. The approximate yield of spring wheat is 25-35 c / ha. However, using modern methods of wheat cultivation, using full-value supplements, controlling the issue of diseases and pests on the field, one can get higher yields, up to 50 c / ha.