Many gardeners dream of growing many types of apple trees and other garden crops on their land, but the land does not always allow, and not every species can take root in one or another climate. Vaccination can solve these difficulties. This is not an easy job, but affordable for any gardener. How the apple tree is grafted and when it should be done is described below in the article.
Why plant an apple tree?
Not all gardeners understand the benefits of grafting trees until they try out this method. Initially, the procedure may not seem easy, but the work always pays for itself, especially if the trees that are already growing on the site, do not bring an abundance of harvest, as in previous years. So what is the benefit of vaccination?
Photo grafting trees
- The grafted wood yield is high.
- From one tree, 2, 3 and more types of apples are harvested, depending on how many species were grafted.
- The grafted apple trees may be recaptured to any other varieties.
- Grafting an apple tree saves land in the garden. On each tree, you can have more than one variety that will produce a regular crop.
- A graft can save a very badly damaged tree. Typically, such a culture is severely pruned, and then a healthy stalk of another variety is grafted onto it.
- Thermophilic varieties that are unstable to cold, calmly withstand frost on a quality, frost-resistant bale.
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Planted trees throughout the year, but depending on when the work is done, it has certain features.
Grafting an apple tree photo
Grafting apple tree in spring
Spring for vaccination is the right time. With the beginning of the movement of the juices, all grafts quickly take root, and the wounds of the tree heal. It is possible to begin this procedure already in the first months, when the cold subsides, if cuttings are used, and in the case of buds (budding), work is postponed until the first numbers of May.
Summer graft apple
When the graft did not catch on in the spring or simply had to postpone the procedure, you can hold it in the summer months. Around the end of July, you can start working in the garden again. Grafting an apple in August allows you to get a healthy strong plant in a short period.
Inoculation of apple trees in the summer is done in warm climatic zones. And the best method is considered budding "sleeping" kidney.
Interesting! The bandage put on top of the scion should be removed in time. If the work was carried out in spring or summer, then the bandage is removed after 60-90 days, and if in the fall, then it is left for the whole winter.
Grafting an apple tree in the fall
Autumn is not the best season for grafting apple trees, but the temperature outside is high and there is no sharp frost in the near future, it is quite possible to do this. The procedure is usually carried out by budding or splitting. The time of the first 30-45 days of autumn. It is advisable to finish the work 14-21 days before the average temperature in the street drops below +15 degrees.
Interesting! The best vaccine in the fall is taking root in young trees. A mature tree can even hurt the autumn procedure.
Grafting apple trees in winter
Not many gardeners know, but you can plant trees in the winter. This method is called desktop inoculation, because it is always carried out in an enclosed space. In this case, seedlings are planted, which will be planted in the spring in the open ground. The procedure is carried out from January to March and recent work must be completed at least 15-20 days before transplanting the seedling to a permanent place.
Cuttings for winter grafting apple trees are prepared when the temperature begins to drop to -8 degrees Celsius. But the seedlings are prepared even before the frost, when the ground is not frozen.
Seedlings and cuttings kept in a dark place at 0 degrees. 7-14 days before the start of work, the stock is transferred to a room with + 15 ... +18 degrees, and cuttings can be brought into heat only in 2-3 days.
What graft apple tree?
It is recommended to plant an apple tree on an apple tree. Grafting apple cuttings or eyes in this case does not cause problems and complications. Culture is quickly recovering and growing. Suitable for this as an adult tree, and seedlings of cultivated species or wilderness.
There are many different vaccination methods.Important! Tree grafting can be compared with surgery. Therefore, it should be carried out only with clean hands, disinfected instruments and with great care!
You can also plant an apple tree on a pear, rowan, viburnum, quince, hawthorn and chokeberry. But when choosing these stocks will have to take into account certain nuances.
- A pear on an apple tree grows normally, but at the same time is a poor stock for an apple tree, like a quince. They are used exclusively in a hopeless variant or for experiments.
- Such a plant will be short-lived and grow old faster.
- Rowan rootstock, as well as viburnum and quince can lead to the fact that the apples will be small, although the grafted variety can withstand even severe frosts!
Apple tree grafting methodsWe recommend reading our other articles.
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There are many different methods of grafting plants. In the case of apple trees are usually used:
- budding (eye vaccination);
- graft splitting.
In certain cases, suitable methods such as vaccination:
Grafting fruit trees
- in semi-split;
- in lateral clearance;
- behind the bark;
- approximation (ablation);
- by the bridge
All of the above methods in the case of apples can be applied, but many of them are quite difficult, especially for beginners. Experts apply them in certain cases. For example, grafting by a bridge is suitable for plants with damaged bark.
Apple tree copulation
Inoculation of an apple tree is not as easy as it may seem. Immediately it turns out not always, but with time comes the skill. Copulation is possible when the graft and stock are the same in size. The permissible diameter of the pagon and the cutting is 2.5-5 cm. The procedure is carried out in spring, summer and winter, when it is necessary to plant a seedling.Important! Most often, copulation is used for young seedlings, about 1-2 years old.
Copulation is to connect the graft with the rootstock as if it were a single branch - from the side it should look like this. The apple carcass is cut to a slant, and the stalk is cut in the same way. Then you need to connect the cuts in order to get a straight branch and tie them tighter so that they do not break up. But it is necessary to be zealous in moderation in order not to spoil the bark on the graft or stock.
Success awaits a gardener if the cambium of two branches coincides. Then the wagons will quickly grow together. But this is difficult to achieve, so you can use an improved copulation method. In this case, the cut is conducted on both branches zigzag. This will provide a closer grip.
Inoculation of the apple tree by the kidney
Grafting of apple trees by cuttings is not always possible, and then an eye or a budding method is used. It is economically beneficial and can be performed several times a year, for example, if the kidney does not take root.Important! Budding with a germinating kidney is carried out only in warm areas, and in cold buds it is carried out with a “sleeping” kidney.
If we are talking about a sprouting eye (kidney), then this procedure is carried out in early spring - the end of March or the first of April. The time should be at the time when the first leaves begin to bloom. Vaccination "sleeping" kidney is carried out from mid-July until the end of the first decade of August.
The procedure is not difficult. From the one-year-old scion, the ocellus are cut with adjacent tissues. On the stock is a T-shaped incision of the bark on the trunk. The bark is folded back and a shield with a kidney is inserted there, and then the bark is laid over the top of the shield so that the kidney is looking out. So that the bark is not folded down, and the kidney does not fall out, you need to wrap it from above with a cloth or plastic wrap so as not to touch the kidney itself.
Grafting Apple Tree
Sometimes a vaccine does not work the first time, and then many gardeners apply a graft splitting procedure. In this case, a twig in the girth of about 2-5 cm is suitable for the procedure. It is carried out in spring from the beginning to the middle of spring, when the cold has already passed. But in principle, you can postpone this work until the last days of the summer. And in warm climates, they sometimes experiment in early autumn.
Photo grafting apple treeImportant! This method is used on 3-6 summer trees.
The procedure is not difficult, but care must be taken.
- A cut is made on the handle so that the branch easily becomes in the cleft of another pagon. The cut is made with the letter V.
- On the rootstock spend splitting twigs. It is advisable to do it strictly in the center - in this way engraftment will be quick.
- Now you need to set the graft in the stock and wrap with a cloth or film so that they do not come apart. Primatyvayut tightly to the wind, the rain did not dislodge the cutting.
This method allows the use of more than one cutting, if the stock is large in diameter.
Caring for a grafted apple tree
After proper grafting, the tree develops rapidly, goes to growth. But that apple was easier, it is worth carrying out a certain care.
Apple tree care photo
- If the vaccination was carried out in the fall, it is necessary to dig up the ground well before the frost in the near-stem circle, water the tree, make a significant layer of mulch under the trunk.
- If there is a very strong heat and the temperature does not drop for a long time, it is necessary to shade the vaccination site by any available method.
- Shoots growing below the grafting site are always removed. This is done so that they do not limit the nutrition of the cutting. They are always removed with a sharp pruner, and not broken, because it can damage the bark!
- Watering the grafted tree need abundant, not rare. It is important that the moisture was enough, so that in addition to watering, it is also advisable to make regular dressings, but not very concentrated, only to support the development of the apple tree and its strength, and not to cause additional stress!
- If after sowing, several shoots appeared on the cutting at once, you need to remove all but one - the strongest and better if it has a way out of the upper eyelet.
- Young shoots that emerged from the stalk when they grow up to 20 cm tied up, and then again when they reach 45 cm.
Grafting an apple tree increases the yield of a crop, allows you to get one or more varieties on your plot without losing valuable space. And if all the procedures are carried out correctly, in a short time it will be possible to taste the fresh fruits from your unique tree.