Wheat gluten


Gluten was first discovered by the scientist Cheraz Beccaria Bonesano in 1728. Today, when determining the quality of cereals, the level of gluten plays one of the most important roles. It has the most important effect on the properties of flour, so this value can not be neglected. Below in the article will be described what is wheat gluten, the IDC indicator and what exactly affects the level of gluten in the grain.

What is wheat gluten?

Gluten creates an elastic, sticky dough.

Wheat gluten is a water-insoluble chemical substance from the protein group. It has a gray or light yellow color. This substance is very important in the production of bread and pastries. And although it is available in any cereal crops, it is in wheat grains most of all. This is one of the reasons why wheat is most often used for bread production around the world.

Interesting! Gluten is the English name for gluten, and Cleber is the German name. Dry gluten consists of hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon and oxygen, as well as sulfur and phosphorus components.

When mixing ground wheat and water, gluten creates an elastic, sticky dough, convenient for work. This allows you to linger inside the gas bubbles that produce yeast, and make the usual porous bread. The more kleber in the composition of wheat, the "stronger" it is considered - the higher the quality.

If we talk about the beneficial properties, then they have several gluten:

  • it contains more than 15 essential amino acids for the human body;
  • it contains vitamins of group B, A, E and some minerals;
  • after cooking, gluten provides a high rate of vegetable proteins in the product;
  • it is a natural preservative;
  • it makes the dough more airy and elastic.

All these qualities speak in favor of the product. That is why, when growing wheat, gathering it and storing it, farmers try to make sure that the gluten in the final product is high, not low.

Dry wheat gluten

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Photo of dry wheat gluten

The dry gluten of wheat in production, which is used in food factories and in the bakery industry, is in great demand. This is a simple additive to increase the rate and quality of gluten in flour products. Used dry matter for the production of:

  • bread and pastries;
  • pasta;
  • frozen semi-finished products (manti, dumplings, khinkali, etc.);
  • frozen dough;
  • minced meat, sausages and sausages.

What is IDK wheat gluten?

Photo device IDK-1M to measure the quality of gluten

The quality indicators of bread products depend on the IDC (gluten strain gauge). IDK is an apparatus that measures the index of gluten deformation.

To measure the IDK, you first need to clear the product of starch in water and put the resulting sticky mass on the platform of the IDK apparatus. Now the machine is turned on, and it begins to crush the gluten crumb with a load for 10 minutes. After that, the arrow on the machine indicates the level of the IDA of this gluten.

Interesting! Not all people can use gluten and products containing it. In case of celiac disease, the body recognizes this substance as foreign and reacts to it with a variety of allergic reactions.

There are three groups of IDK gluten and two species without a group, but they also sometimes occur if the grain was grown, dried or stored incorrectly. The table below shows the IDK types and their features.

IDK groupGluten qualityIndicator units IDKGluten color
I groupGood45-75 unitsGrayish or light yellow
Group IISatisfactory-weak80-100 unitsLight gray or light yellow
III groupPoorly weak105-120 unitsLight gray or light yellow
No groupUnsatisfactory0-15 unitsStrong gluten, dark color
No groupUnsatisfactory20-40 uSatisfactory strong, dark color

Wheat Gluten Amount by Class

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The quality of gluten is usually determined by the abundance of nitrogen in the dry matter. Its maximum rate is 16%. The quality of gluten is divided into 5 classes. The first is very weak, and the fifth grade is very strong. Depending on the quality and quantity of gluten in the grain, wheat is divided into five classes.

Wheat gluten table by grain classes:

Grain classThe amount of glutenGluten quality
I36%I group
II28-32%Group II
III23-27%III group
IV18-22%Group IV
VNot limitedV group

The first 3 classes belong to the group "A" of the grain. It is used in the production of buns, bread and other similar products. It is usually sent for export.

The fourth and fifth grade belong to the group "B" grain. It is used in the manufacture of pasta, cereals.

There is also a sixth class - a fodder type of low-quality grain, which is used in the preparation of compound feed and mixtures for agricultural animals.

What determines the level of gluten?

Many factors determine the level of gluten in wheat grains. But in fact - the more protein, the more gluten. Below are the factors affecting the level of gluten in wheat grains.

  1. Wheat variety.
  2. Cultivation conditions - type of land, maintenance of crops, watering, the type of dressings, their number and the like.
  3. The collection and storage of grain, namely the chemicals with which the grain is processed, the place of storage or processing of the final product.
Interesting! The higher the humidity in the field where the crop is grown, the lower the amount of protein in wheat!

But the most important factors that affect the gluten index are:

  • climate;
  • type and quality of soil;
  • feeding wheat;
  • treatment from weeds and pests;
  • air humidity and earth.

Scientists claim that with the right choice of variety and fertilizing used for growing wheat, as well as growing conditions, a high level of gluten in the final product can be achieved.