Orchid Dendrobium - one of the most desirable indoor plants for gardeners. Any variety or hybrid has its own unique qualities and is characterized by perfect beauty, for which Dendrobium is loved. Below is a characteristic of the plant, as well as features of care at home.
Dendrobium orchid characteristics
Dendrobium is a perennial herbaceous orchid. It belongs to the Orchid family. It was first discovered in 1799 in the Caribbean islands by the Swedish botanist Olaf Schwarz, who gave the name to the plant, which is translated from Greek as "living on a tree". The reason for such a defining name is that most of these plants grow directly on trees, like epiphytic ones. But there are also a number of Dendrobiums that grow like lithophytes - on slippery rocks - stones.
Orchid Dendrobium grows most often a small bush. Height can be from a few centimeters to a meter. The root system is responsible for attaching the plant to the bark or stones, as well as for water saturation. Air roots are covered with belamen, which absorbs moisture like a sponge. The leaves are green, oblong, but in shape are different. Located on the top of the shoot or alternately along its length.Important! The duration of flowering orchids Dendrobium depends on the type and variety.
Adult culture has several stems with flowers and leaves, due to which it looks really magnificent and elegant. The stems are the same pseudobulbs - they store a supply of moisture and nutrients in case of drought. The type of shoot depends on the type of orchid - smooth, cylindrical, ribbed. The life of each shoot is about 3-4 years, then dying takes place.
The shape, size and type of flower depends on the type of orchid Dendrobium. On the peduncle it can be from 4 flowers with a diameter of 4-10 cm. There are peduncles in the sinus of almost every leaf. The color of the bud may be monochrome, two and tricolor. It can be any shades of orange, beige, lilac, yellow, or just a white color.
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The world knows more than 1,500 species of Dendrobium orchid, and there are even more varieties and hybrids. In the wild, they grow in Australia, Polynesia, South Asia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Japan, and the Philippines. Natural, tropical species will not grow in the apartment. But artificially bred orchids can grow in indoor conditions without any problems, but only under certain conditions.Important! The main conditions for the proper maintenance of Dendrobium are day and night temperature drops, prolonged light day, high humidity and a mandatory rest period from November to the end of December.
- The Dendrobium Orchid loves the sun, so they usually put it on the east, southeast and southwest windows. If the southern window is chosen, then it will be necessary to darken the flower, since it will be too hot on it.
- The spring-summer temperature during the day should be within + 20 ... +26 degrees Celsius. At night, it drops to + 15 ... +20 degrees - there must be a difference! If the temperature does not change during the day, the plant will lag behind, and flowering will be scarce. In autumn and winter, the temperature is reduced to + 12 ... +17 degrees during the day and at night to + 10 ... + 13.
- In addition, it is necessary to provide high humidity. Make it simple - you need to put 2-3 low containers with water (you can use decorative ones) next to the pot and refill them from time to time.
How to care for Dendrobium orchid at home?
Dendrobium Orchid Care
In addition to the mandatory growing conditions, which usually “provide” long before the plant is purchased, care must also be taken at home for care, otherwise the orchid will not survive for long.
- Watering is carried out as necessary. As a rule, their number depends on the time of year. In spring and summer, you need to water every 3-4 days, in the fall - once every 7 days, and in the winter - once a month. The method of irrigation is very simple - the pot is simply placed in a container with warm water for 10-15 minutes, and then removed and put in a dry container for another 5 minutes so that all excess moisture is drained from the glass.
- Spraying can be done at intervals of 1 day. But it is advisable not to do this procedure during flowering.
- Fertilization is necessary during the most active growth - April-September. Bring them at intervals of 2-4 weeks along with watering. You can use any complex mineral fertilizers for orchids.
- If flowering does not begin at the appropriate time, it can be stimulated by stopping watering and carrying the pot to the brightest, sunniest place in the house. Fertilizer with high phosphorus content will also help.
- After flowering orchid need to give time to relax. For this, the peduncle is cut, and the plant is transferred to a cool place. Watering is first reduced and then stopped. But the lighting does not change at all - the light of culture is necessary at any time of the year.
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The Dendrobium orchid can be propagated by dividing the bush or by cutting.
- In the case of grafting, pseudobulbs must be separated from the mother bush. 10 cm long cuttings are cut out of them. The resulting material is folded in tightly closed plastic bags with sphagnum moss at a temperature of +22 ... +25 degrees and sufficiently bright, diffused light. The bags are sometimes ventilated and the moss is moistened. When the roots appear, you can transplant the stalks into pots.
- Adult Dendrobium can form on the stem of babies. When they reach 4-5 cm in length, and their roots are 3-4 cm, they are cut with a part of the maternal stem and planted in a nutrient substrate (can be bought in the store). This substrate is a crushed bark. So that she does not hurt the delicate roots of the kids, she is soaked in warm water for 24 hours.
Transplantation of an adult plant is carried out once every 2-3 years. In addition, transplantation can be carried out if the ground in the pot is contaminated or flooded with something, there is a need for transplanting and in the event of a rapid growth of the bush - the roots should not be crowded in the pot. The time of transplantation is always referred to the spring, when the flowering is over, and the flower starts growing.Important! After transplantation, the plant is not watered for 7-10 days, so that it takes root.
For planting usually use an opaque pot with holes in the bottom to drain water. Drainage of large pieces of bark is laid on the bottom. The substrate can be bought or made from pine bark, sphagnum moss and foam balls.
Diseases, pests and other problems
Dendrobium orchid diseases
At home, under the standards of care, the Dendrobium orchid is rarely sick, but if the maintenance rules are violated, diseases and other problems will not take long to wait.
- Of the pests, the plant most often affects mites, mealybugs, aphids, and the like. In case of their appearance, it is necessary to treat the culture with insecticides for houseplants. Well proved themselves "Lightning", "Fufanol", "Aktara", "Bi 58 New."
- If the wrinkling of the stems is noted after the purchase of an orchid, it is necessary to adjust the conditions in the room: light, temperature, humidity. It does not hurt also to feed the plant.
- The lack of colors can be associated with too bright light or a premature exit from the resting phase.
- Fungal diseases always appear when there are any problems with irrigation (its abundance or deficiency). Solve the problem by transplanting into a new substrate, pot, irrigation standardization, as well as treatment with fungicides.
- If the Dendrobium leaves turned yellow, it means you need to change the intensity of light and feed the culture with complex fertilizer.
- If the stem turns brown, it means that it has begun to rot, and it will not lead to anything good. It can help in this case the drug "Alirin-B", but if it does not help, the pseudobulb will have to be removed.
At observance of norms of care orchid Dendrobium will not cause significant problems. However, it is necessary to get a taste for its cultivation, because it is far from an easy to grow flower.