During the cultivation of cucumbers, diseases often appear on the leaves, stalks and even greens. They develop rapidly and can cause damage to the crop. For their successful treatment, you need to be able to accurately determine the type of illness and take timely response. Below in the article will be described diseases of cucumbers and pests that most often precipitate them.
What is sick cucumbers in the greenhouse?
Cucumbers in the greenhouse
Greenhouses make it possible to get a rich harvest, but due to high humidity and temperature, as well as a lack of sun, a variety of diseases affecting crops are often bred there. Below are those diseases of cucumbers, which are most often found in greenhouses
This disease is among the five most dangerous for cucumbers. It can affect both young seedlings and adult plants. Most often found in greenhouses, but in the open field seedlings are not protected from it.
It appears in gray spots on the leaves, which quickly spread, then black specks appear. Whitish-brown spots can be seen on the neck, shoot and stalk of cucumbers, sometimes gum is also released. The fruits turn black, mummified, and the green mass quickly dies. Treatment: spraying 1% Bordeaux liquid, copper sulphate (5g / 10 l of water) and urea (10 g / 10 l of water). The stalks are smeared with a mixture of chalk and copper sulfate in a 1: 1 ratio.
Olive spotting is the second name for cucumber disease. Manifested in the form of curvature of young fruits, dark brown or brown spots on the peel. Sometimes the stems and leaflets can also be damaged. These spots dry out over time and form scabs or sores.
This type of cucumber disease is spread through insects, seeds, infected tools, weeds and any other methods. As a preventive measure, greenhouse disinfection is used before planting, maintaining normal temperature and ventilation. When the first signs of illness appear, the culture is sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or a 0.3% solution of copper oxychloride. You need 3-4 sprays per season at the same interval of 1.5-2 weeks.
- Mealy dew.
Powdery mildew often develops on cucumbers as a result of high humidity and coolness. The disease can be seen on a white patina on the underside of the leaves, which eventually appears on the top of the sheet. The spots gradually darken and dry up. Cereals become bitter and lose a lot of juice.
In order to prevent the occurrence of the disease, it is worth planting resistant varieties. Patients are recommended to treat sprouts with a solution of soda (0.4%) with soap, and maybe with the use of Baktofit, Topaz, Prevent, Karatan, Novosil or similar.
- Bacteriosis of cucumbers.
Ailment is also called angular spotting of leaves. If we talk about the features of this leaf disease, then it is important to note that first of all it affects the foliage (oily brown spots appear), and after the defeat it rapidly dies off. Also suffer flowers, fruits, cotyledons. This leads to a loss of 50-70% yield. If necrotic specks appeared on the greenery, it means that the disease is in the last stage and the situation cannot be rectified.
The disease is transmitted mainly through infected seeds, so in order to avoid ailment on the site, it is worth acquiring only high-quality seed. Preventive measures also include timely disinfection and ventilation of the greenhouse, maintaining normal temperature and humidity inside.Important! Preventive spraying of cucumbers in a greenhouse or in the open field should be carried out at least 4 times per season!
It is possible to cope with the problem that appeared at the early stages by spraying with a 0.2% solution of Fitoflavin-300. In addition, if the disease was previously seen on the site, it is necessary to pickle the seeds with the same preparation or TMTD (4-8 g / 1 kg of seeds) before sowing.
- Cucumber Mosaic Virus.
Cucumber mosaic virus combines several diseases. This group includes leaf diseases such as white, green, ordinary and English mosaic. Leaflets wrinkle in defeat, cracks appear on the stalks. The number of female flowers and fruits is reduced. Spots appear on greenhouses, they grow slowly, quickly fade right on the garden bed.Important! Previously, the cucumber mosaic virus was only inherent in greenhouse crops, but lately gardeners have often complained about it even when growing cucumbers in open ground.
The disease is transmitted with the juice of diseased plants or with the aphid "mediated". For the prevention of any working tools are disinfected, it also does not hurt to pickle the seeds before planting with a 15% trisodium phosphate solution or potassium permanganate. It is also important to avoid aphids in the garden.
- Fusarium wilt.
Fusarium can destroy up to 60% of the crop, so you can not ignore the problem. In the first stage, the disease is visible on the drooping top of the plant, which is especially visible during the midday hours. At night, the tip quickly recovered. After the ovary has appeared, the leaves begin to turn yellow, the lash dries. Culture eventually dries out completely.
The disease spreads through contaminated soil and diseased crops, seeds. To avoid problems will allow the use of quality land and seeds, and disinfection of the soil. If the plant is affected, it is either removed from the site, or pickled with the “Privicur” preparation.
What other cucumber diseases exist?Read also these articles.
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- The technology of growing winter wheat
In addition to the above cucumber diseases, there are also those that rarely “live” in greenhouses. In this case, cucumbers suffer from them no less, so you need to know the characteristics of the manifestation and methods of treatment.
- Root rot.
It develops as a result of heavy irrigation and lack of fresh air. The stems become thin and dry quickly. The neck and root system are affected by brown spots, similar to burns. In the heat can also die off leaves. The roots and the stem itself become fragile, darken and die off.
The cause of this cucumber disease is improper care. So, prevention is the observance of the norms of irrigation, ventilation, temperature, regardless of the place of landing. If the disease has just appeared, culture can be saved. To do this, reduce the number of irrigations and cultivate the land with bleach (up to 200 g / sq. M.). If the culture in the final stages of infection is to remove it from the garden and burn it.
Downy mildew or perinosporosis refers to a rather dangerous leaf disease. It manifests itself in the form of light yellow spots on the leaves, which quickly darken and die. On the back of the sheet there is a gray-purple bloom. The plant dies, but before it affects the neighboring cultures.
The spores of the fungus "travel" on insects, carried by the wind, seeds. To avoid illness, seeds are sown before sowing in a solution of potassium permanganate, trying to maintain a normal microclimate when growing seedlings and already adult plants. Sick shoots are immediately treated with Bordeaux liquid or any fungicide that contains copper.
Important! If peronosporosis struck the plant at the end of the season, you can safely collect and use the fruit from it, and then remove and burn the culture. The fruits in this case are completely safe, taste is not spoiled, as well as their appearance.
Fight against diseases of cucumbers in the open field
Open Field Cucumbers
In the open ground, all of the above diseases of cucumbers are found, but their treatment methods are slightly different from those used in greenhouses. At the first signs you need to start to stop watering, feeding. After that, it is worthwhile to carry out the treatment with fungicides (selected depending on the disease). After some time (2-3 weeks) the second treatment is carried out. It is very important to pick cucumbers growing in the open ground on time. The plants themselves, cleaned as soon as they cease to bear fruit and begin to dry out.
In the open ground it is important to monitor the quality of the land. If it is infected, the soil is treated with ash, copper sulphate or urea. But do not forget that the open ground is not a box with the ground, so it is impossible to completely disinfect the earth. Yet temporary methods allow you to support young shoots of seedlings or seeds, until they take root and become strong enough to withstand ailments at least partially. Therefore, we should never neglect tillage.
Pests on cucumbersWe recommend reading our other articles.
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Most often, cucumber diseases are caused by their spread by pests. So pest control on cucumbers is an effective method of preventing the development and spread of ailments.
- The spider mite will disappear from the site if the plants are treated with infusions of onion or garlic. To prepare the infusion, you need 200 g of husk to insist in 10 liters of water and spray the plants five times per season.
- Gourd aphid can spread with great speed. Struggling with it, since the moment of appearance, not allowing the spread. In the course you can start up as insecticides, as well as folk remedies. Well helps solution of 200 g of ash per 10 liters of water with 50 g of soap.
- Ants will not live where there is at least a slight smell of kerosene. But the land from these insects can be treated with lime.
- The hothouse whitefly is afraid of tobacco. It is ground to dust and simply “powdered” by plants from all sides or poured onto the ground around the crop.
Do not forget that cucumbers are a treat for the bear, the larvae of various beetles and slugs. When they appear, they use strong insecticides, but only before the appearance of greenberries, otherwise it will be dangerous to eat them. But folk methods do not interfere, but they are more effective as prevention, and not the main means of pest control.
Disease resistant cucumber varieties
Cucumbers without disease
There is no variety or hybrid of cucumbers, which is generally not sick with anything, but there are varieties that are resistant to certain diseases. The following are examples of the most resistant species.
- The varieties are resistant to ascochitoza: "Cascade", "Leningradsky greenhouse", "Amazon", "Prolific".
- Cucumbers “Graceful”, “Far Eastern 12”, “Nezhensky 12”, “Competitor”, “Far Eastern 6” are not afraid of bacteriosis.
- Kladosporioz is not terrible for F1 type hybrids: "Adam", "Marta", "Hector", "Amur 1801", "Danila", "Makar" and the variety "Aquarius".
- To such a disease of cucumbers as root rot, there is a strong immunity in the varieties: "Bunny", "White Night", "Nugget", "Zozulya", "Tarapunka", "Autumn gherkin".
- Hybrids (F1) do not suffer from mosaics: "Adam", "Hector", "Vicenta", "Danila", "Amur 1801" and the variety "White Night".
- Since the powdery mildew is an eternal problem of the gardener, the breeders have brought out many resistant to it hybrids (F1): "Danila", "Swallow", "Anyuta", "Vicenta" and varieties like "Son of the Shelf" and "Competitor".
- Hybrids (F1) resistant to downy mildew: "Ant", "Lord", "Buyan", "Grasshopper", "Compass". From Fusarium present
- From Fusarium there is immunity in varieties and hybrids: "White Night", "Hector F1", "Dolomite F1", "Christina F1".