Grapes - thermophilic culture. There are capricious and unpretentious varieties, with their own nuances of care, but the planting of all types of grapes is usually identical. For the most successful cultivation, planting grapes in the fall is carried out by saplings and cuttings. Both methods are described below, and the advantages and disadvantages of an autumn planting are outlined.
The benefits of autumn planting grapes
Autumn planting of grapes
Planting grapes in the fall has several advantages, so gardeners often use this method.
- If you plant grapes in the fall, already in early spring, it will begin the process of vegetation. Such a plant develops about a season faster.
- In the autumn, there is a much larger selection of saplings and cuttings sold in gardening markets than in early spring.
- It is much easier to plant in the autumn for many reasons: the land is not frozen, the water is not swampy after the snowmelt, the temperature is satisfactory for work, the time is much longer than in spring when you need to plant everything at once.
- In the autumn, there is a lot of moisture in the soil, and not only one month, as in the spring (while the snow hides), but about 2-2.5 months, until the first frost. Therefore, after planting the grapes, even watering will not be necessary (only during planting) - nature itself will do everything for the gardener.
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Before proceeding to a detailed description of the process, you must first find out what the drawbacks of the autumn planting are.
- Planting material must be of high quality. Before winter you can not plant frail, damaged shoots or those that were "cut off" from the sick maternal plant. For this period, only the best seedlings and cuttings are suitable, which have every chance to settle down and quickly take root in a new place before the first frost.
- Planting grapes in the fall does not give any guarantees. Throughout the autumn and subsequent winter, the gardener can only guess whether the culture will take root or not. And only in spring, when the growing season begins, will it be possible to determine the outcome of the work done.
- The risk of freezing is due to the fact that frosts in some regions come quite unexpectedly. Therefore, in the northern areas to plant grapes in the fall is not recommended. But in the southern and middle regions, this is quite possible with the observance of technology.
When to plant grapes in the fall?
The growing season of grapes is long, therefore it is recommended to plant it in the fall early. As a rule, gardeners are guided by the period from mid-August to early September when planting grapes with a closed root system. But this is only in the middle regions and in the north (if the risk is justified). As to the southern regions, the grapes are planted there in the fall until mid-October.
But planting cuttings and divided bushes (healthy and strong) can be carried out in the middle regions until mid-October, and in the south from mid to late October.
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In order for the culture to quickly take root, and there were no complications, it is important to choose the planting material correctly.
- Regardless of whether the cuttings or seedlings are taken, the plants must be strong, resistant with at least partially developed root system.
- The grapes are taken local. Since the one that was brought from a different climatic zone will adapt for a long time to local conditions.
- The culture should be young, not old, since transplanting an old vine can not give the desired result.
- Plants with an open root system should be freshly dug with an earthy ball on the roots.
- Plants can be planted in autumn of any type, but preference is given to the fact that they have a closed root system.
To plant grapes in the autumn you only need a good place with prepared soil. As a rule, grapes have groups of several pieces with a distance of 2-3 meters between them. Grapes should be in a sunny place, with a distance of 2 meters from the nearest buildings (to protect against cold winds).Important! The vineyard does not grow in the solonetz. If the soil is acidic, it is necessary to dilute it with lime before planting - this is a mandatory procedure.
The land is preparing for 3 weeks on average, before the day of landing. This is done so that it settles and planting grapes in the fall was a success. The top layer of the earth is always removed and mixed with wood ash, humus, superphosphate and potassium sulfate. This mixture is a fertile soil for falling asleep cuttings or seedlings.
Planting grapes seedlings
For seedlings need a pit. Its size depends on the size of the sprouts and can vary from 40x40 cm to 100x100 cm. If the groundwater is high, you need to make a good drainage (from 30 cm and more). After the pit has been dug, it is necessary to make fertile land (humus, superphosphate, potassium sulfate, removed topsoil), which the seedling will fall asleep.
The day before planting you need to soak the seedlings in warm clean water. After 24 hours, the shoots are pruned into several eyes, so it will be easier for the crop to take root. The roots are also shortened and dipped into a clay mash.Important! You can not plant grapes in the fall on the high ridges, as it will freeze out for sure!
Now the actual planting of the grapes is carried out in the fall. A small slide is made in the pit, a sapling is placed on it. The roots gently straighten on all sides. Now, layer by layer, fertile soil is poured. It should be well "shrouded" every root. It is not necessary to press and press the ground, but it is possible to slightly compact it after it becomes equal to the upper ground level. It now remains to water the plant (2 buckets of warm water) and cover with a plastic bottle with holes for ventilation.
How to plant grapes in the fall cuttings?
The cuttings are usually planted in trenches 15–40 cm deep and up to a meter wide. If necessary, drainage is made from below and covered with a thin layer of soil. Before planting the ground is watered with warm water. After the water has been absorbed, it is necessary to place the cuttings in a trench at an angle of 45 degrees and with a distance of 10-15 cm.Important! If a lot of cuttings are planted and several trenches need to be made, then the distance between them is kept at 40 cm or more, so that it is convenient to care for the grown grapes.
After the seedlings are installed in the trench, they are carefully sprinkled with earth (fertile) and irrigated again. And for the first time to protect the cuttings from unpredictable weather, you need to cover them with a film. The latter will create a greenhouse effect, increase the temperature, and the cuttings will root faster.