Tying grapes is an essential part of crop care. It is very important to carry out the garter on time and according to all the rules, so that the grapes give large, stable yields. This article describes how to tie grapes, and when to do it.
Why tie grapes
Grapes - a plant with a developed liana, which, as it grows, clings to natural or artificial supports, climbing up. So when growing grapes without support, the plant itself finds what it clings to and still begins to curl, but at the same time the yield decreases, and it will be quite difficult to reach the grapes (grapes can grow very high).
Knowing how to tie up the grapes, you can form a beautiful, neat shrub, ask the vine the right direction, ensure the full development of shoots and buds. This procedure has a positive effect on the development of bunches, because by means of a garter, bunches can be positioned so that they get a lot of sunlight.
Fan shaping grapes
Another significant benefit of grape-garter is a reduction in the incidence of the bush, especially fungal diseases due to good ventilation of the ground part of the bush. And the insect becomes easier to pollinate the plant, which significantly increases the yield.Interesting! Some varieties of grapes can grow and yield about 100 years! And the more his age, the more yield he brings.
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Garter culture begins in early spring, after the disclosure of the winter shelter bush. During the beginning of the movement of the juice, the vine becomes flexible, but does not lose strength - this is the best time for a garter. But at the time of bud break all the work needs to be finished, because young sprouts are very fragile and, as far as garters can simply break off.
In spite of the fact that the main work on the garter is being done in the spring, in the summer it will also be necessary to tie up a young vine, which has just appeared so that it does not interfere with the development of the bush and the ripening of the clusters.
Grape Garter Techniques
Photo of a dry horizontal garter grape
There are two main methods of how to tie grapes - dry and green. Garter is held on the trellis, lattice, mesh for plants. The arch, gazebo, fences such as a fence, a wall can also serve as a support. In any case, each gardener is free to choose the type of support himself, the main thing is that the procedure itself is carried out correctly, then the type of support will not play a big role.
- The dry garter is called so for the reason that the work is carried out with a dry, last year's vine, which has not yet woken up after the winter. It is done in early spring. Shoots are arranged vertically or by the fan method. The sleeves of the plant (stiff branches) bend down and fasten to the bottom wire row of support. All flexible shoots are fixed on the second tier of the support at an inclination of 45-60 degrees.
Knot for garter grapes
- The green garter is held in summer, when young pagons are sung, 30-40 cm long. The young vine is mounted vertically under a slight bias in order to maintain good illumination. Such a garter is held every time the vine reaches the top edge of the support. During the summer, you may need 3-4 such garters or just one - it depends on the grape variety (growth force).
The garter is made flexible wire, wide ribbon or strong rope rope. It is important that with a strong wind it does not tear and does not break! As a vineyard fallen from a support in the summer can suppress all ripening berries!
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The easiest method of growing grapes - mount on the trellis. Tapestry has many advantages over other types of supports.
- Saves space on the site;
- Easy to use;
- It can be made from inexpensive, scrap materials;
- Simplifies care, harvesting;
- Provides good ventilation and light bushes;
- The berries get more sunlight, heat, so they ripen faster and have a more pleasant taste.
Garter grapes on the trellis
There is only one deficiency in the trellis - for the winter, the vine must be removed from the trellis, bent down to the ground and covered, otherwise it may freeze.Interesting! In order for the vine to be better fixed and not rubbed on the wire in strong winds, it is advisable to use a figure-eight garter - the material is passed between the shoot and the wire, so the vine is securely fastened, but does not rub against the support itself.
For the cultivation of grapes using 2 types of tapestries - monoplane and biplane. The most popular option is a single plane trellis. The bottom row of it goes at a height of 40-50 cm, and all subsequent 30-40 cm. It can be T-shaped, with a visor, gain, to have more vines. A two-plane trellis consists of 2 simple trellis, installed side by side or connected at an angle in the shape of a letter V. More vine can be placed on it or two bushes planted next to it. Such an inclined trellis is convenient in that it provides the best illumination of the plant, clusters, but it will be more difficult to remove the bush for the winter.
And now how to tie grapes on a trellis.
Photo of a dry garter of a bush of grapes
- After opening the shelter, the branches of the grapes are displayed on the sunny side. It is desirable that all branches are located on the one hand, it will simplify the maintenance and removal of the vine for the winter.
- Strongly twist or bend the shoots during the garter is not worth it. Vine curved smoothly, so as not to break.
- Green shoots are tied up at the base or in the middle of the branch, but not at the top internode!
- The stiffened vine is mounted horizontally, and the young - vertically, at an angle of 45-60 degrees.
- In one bundle allowed no more than 2 shoots.
- To fix the vine to be firmly, but without dragging it. In the transmitted vine metabolic processes are disturbed, and this entails a decrease in the nutrition of the whole bush.
Grape Garter Features
The garter of a young bush and an adult has certain differences.
How to tie a vine
- Young bushes. Annual seedlings are usually tied to pegs. When they grow to 30 cm, you can set the grid or trellis grid. Garter is done very carefully. A young vine can slip out of a weak garter, and at the same time kidneys and bark are damaged. So fixing is done tightly and it is recommended to use a wide fabric or similar material for this, which will not stick into young twigs.
- Adult plants are tied to a reliable, high support. Usually a tapestry or similar construction is taken, at least 2 meters high. A stiff, perennial vine is tied to the bottom row, and the young pagons are attached to the top rows. For the garter of the stiff shoots, you can take the wire, and for the young pagons wide ribbons.
Grapes without garters
Thanks to the garter in the spring and summer, easier to care for grapes, harvesting. Yes, and the plant is much easier to form a crop, if the pagons grow in a certain direction and do not interfere with each other. However, it is possible to grow grapes without garters. After opening winter warming, the vineyard can simply be placed on a natural support, without a garter and it will continue to grow as he likes. In the winter it is again removed from the support and covered with agrofiber or other insulating material on the ground. The non-garter method is commonly used for growing grapes on fences and similar supports.
Grape-dressing is an important part of caring for the plant, although you can do without it if you wish. And yet, professional winegrowers grow grapes only with a garter to a trellis or other support. Properly performed procedure allows to improve the development of the plant, increase the yield, as well as improve the culture.