At all times, Gardenia (Gardenia) was considered a royal plant, imperial. It received its name in honor of the scientist, physicist Alexander Gorden. Her beautiful buds thin out an amazing, persistent fragrance, so often the essence obtained from her is used in the manufacture of perfumes, oils and various cosmetics.
Botanical description of the plant
White Gardenia Flower
Gardenia flower belongs to the marenov family. The area of distribution of the genus in the natural environment is southeast Asia. In pre-revolutionary Russia, it was called the Cape jasmine. Grows up to 1.5 meters in height in greenhouses and greenhouses. Indoor species are more compact, grow bush, up to 0.5 meters. The leaves are broadly lanceolate or oval, have a shiny surface, dense structure and dark green color, but there are also variegated varieties. Arranged alone or in whorls of 3 things.Interesting! Depending on the species, this plant can grow with shrubs, a tree or even a prickly vine. And the closest relatives of gardenia are coffee and bouvardia.
Gardenia flowers are quite large, reaching a diameter of 8-13 cm. They are assembled in a brush in several pieces or grow singly. The flower has 5, 6 or 8 petals. Type of flower - terry or semi-double. The flowers of some varieties are similar in shape to roses, and the aroma to jasmine. But even if the smell is not jasmine, it is always pleasant, persistent. The color of the buds depends on the variety. The most popular for indoor breeding are species with white flowers, but in nature there are also yellow, cream and other colors.
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The classification of a plant is complex, in comparison, for example with violets, lilies, especially since it has not completely formed. Gardenia genus includes about 250 species. All of them are evergreen and thermophilic.Interesting! The opinion of scientists about the number of species is very different. Some believe that there are about 250, others that no more than 60, and the rest only crossbreeds and variations, but not real gardenias.
Since the 1st century AD, active work was carried out on the selection of new species of this flower. So modern scientists cannot accurately determine which species were of natural origin and which were not. To date, an incredible number of varieties and varieties with large and small flowers, of various forms.
- "Gardenia Jasminoid"- indoor flower with a strong jasmine aroma. The buds are white, double, beautiful, quite large.
- "Gardenia Hawaiian"has white flowers with 6 petals. This is one of the endangered species.
- "Vetchii"gives white terry flowers. They are always double, have a strong aroma. The leaves are dark green with a glossy surface. Often blooms in winter.
- "Fortune"has large, camel-like, double flowers, the diameter of which reaches 10 cm. The leaves are also large, up to 18 cm!
- "The first love"produces large flowers, up to 13 cm in diameter. Type - terry, white-cream color. The aroma is strongly pronounced and persistent. It blooms from early spring and throughout the summer. Flowering happens 1-2 times a year.
Reproduction of Gardenia
One of the less common plant names is "gardenia rooting." It appeared due to the fact that the cuttings of the plant rooted very easily. Therefore, to obtain a lot of small bushes cutting is always used. Cuttings harvested in February and March. To do this, cut off the upper pagons, treat them with a root formation stimulator, and place them in greenhouse conditions (high humidity, temperature not less than +24 degrees).Important! During cutting, all slices of the gardenia flower, both on cuttings and on the mother plant, should be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate to reduce the risk of developing and developing diseases.
Cuttings are best planted in small containers, and pinch the tip to stimulate lateral branching.
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Before planting or replanting gardenia, you need to prepare good soil for it. It is made from equal parts of turf land, soil from under coniferous crops, leafy soil, peat and sand. Acidity should be neutral. From the ready-made mixtures that are sold in the store, you can use the land for azaleas.
Planting gardenia should always be careful not to damage the delicate stems and roots. The whole procedure is carried out at a time and quickly. The pot for planting is filled with drainage, then 2/3 of the soil. Then they put a sprout and gradually sprinkle it with earth. After planting, you can cover the pot with a film or a glass with holes so that the most favorable microclimate (hot and humid) is maintained during rooting. But from time to time they need to be cleaned, to carry out watering, spraying, airing. And when growth is noticeable, you can remove the glass.Important! Adult gardenia needs to be transplanted once every 2 years, and young - every year.
Transplantation is always carried out at the moment when there are no buds - the end of winter. If the buds appear, it is worthwhile to postpone the procedure, since any movement of the flower at this time may lead to the cessation of flowering and other problems. In this case, you can only replace the top layer of the earth, but very carefully, not carrying the flower and not moving the pot.
Flower care Gardenia home
Gardenia is an incredibly beautiful and capricious houseplant. So that she pleases the eye with a lush color and abundant foliage, you need to provide her with the most comfortable conditions.
- North windows are not for this plant. If the apartment has all the windows facing the north side, you need to install artificial light next to the pot and turn it on from time to time. But it should be borne in mind that direct sunlight on the southern windows can also be harmful, therefore it is necessary to darken it with a curtain or gauze in the summer, during the hottest period of the day. As a rule, this time lasts no more than 1-3 hours, and then the shelter is removed. The western or eastern window is suitable only if it is not darkened by trees.
- Home care involves maintaining the right microclimate for the plant. The temperature in the room where the gardenia flower grows is maintained at +24 degrees in the summer and + 16 ... +18 in the winter.
- It is necessary to maintain a high humidity, close to tropical. To do this, the pot is placed in a container with wet pebbles, sphagnum or expanded clay.
- Cold ground for the roots of gardenia, like ice water, is a great deal of stress. Therefore, they plant a flower only in warm earth (you can pour boiling water or warm water), and in summer, when cold air blows from the window, you need to cover the pot with a cloth so that the earth does not cool.
- Watering is done only by settled, filtered or boiled, warm water. Its temperature should be 3-5 degrees higher than the air temperature. Hard water can lead to rotting of the roots or the development of diseases. An alternative to filtered may be rainwater. The frequency is difficult to determine, as long as the land does not dry out and is not swamped. It is sometimes important to add citric acid to water (2-3 drops per liter).
- During the year it is necessary to spray the plant with rainwater or the like to achieve abundant flowering. But water should not fall on the flowers themselves, so that dark spots do not appear on them - it is better to stop spraying during the flowering time.
- Draft will lead to weak flowering, leaf rot.
- The gardenia flower can be cut, cut and shaped so that it grows in a beautiful bush. Sometimes bonsai trees are formed from it, but for this you need a certain skill. Pruning is carried out immediately after flowering, while not only the extra pagons are removed, but also dried buds. The longest shoots can pinch and during the growing season, to develop lateral twigs.
- Fertilizer is necessary for flowering plants. The number of applications is reduced to once in 2 weeks, but the dose should be 2 times lower than recommended on the package.
Diseases and pests of Gardenia
In its natural environment, the gardenia flower is rarely sick, but in apartments, due to the dryness of the climate, the lack of certain substances, poor conditions, diseases often affect it, as well as pests.
- If the leaves become discolored and brown worms appear on them, then these are worms. They must first be removed from the plant one by one using a cotton swab dipped in denatured alcohol, and then sprayed with a systemic insecticide like Fitoverm, Intavir.
- Ticks are easy to notice if the leaves and the ground beneath them turn yellow. The treatment with a systemic insecticide ("Fitoverm", "Intavir") or malathion and an increase in the humidity of the air can help.
- The mealybug causes white, wavy specks on leaflets. Get rid of them, as well as from simple chervets - with a tampon soaked in denatured alcohol, and then spraying with a systemic insecticide.
- Chlorosis - excess calcium in the soil. It provokes yellowing leaves, but the stems remain green. To reduce the amount of calcium, it is necessary to water the gardenia flower with fertilizer with iron and then also decalcified water.
- With the appearance of a disease, it is necessary to spray the plant with a systemic fungicide.
Gardenia and problems in growing
Gardenia flower is among the ten most capricious indoor plants. Therefore, it is not surprising that many problems can arise during cultivation.
- After purchasing gardenia, it is worth raising the humidity in the room for at least a few days. This will allow the plant to more quickly acclimatize and get stronger after transportation (carrying). If this is not done, the culture may never take root in a new place.
- Gardenia does not like to change places. After its acquisition, it is necessary to determine a permanent place and put a pot there. And during flowering, you cannot even turn the pot, otherwise all the buds will fall off right away! If the flower needs to be transferred, it is better to mark it with a marker, the north and south sides of the pot, so that you can then put it back in the same way.
- The low acidity of the soil leads to the fact that the leaves begin to shrink and turn yellow. Correct the situation will help watering with water with citric acid.
- During flowering, you need to control the average temperature in the room. If it falls below +15 degrees, the flowers will quickly wither or the buds will not open and dry at all.
- Spots on the flowers appear if spraying is carried out during flowering.
- If the light is small, the leaves will turn pale and eventually turn yellow. There are only two ways out - to find a brighter place or to make an artificial light.
- The amount of light is not a problem, but the leaves are yellow, then most likely the soil is too acidic and can be solved by watering with a solution of ferrous sulphate.
- Watering with alkaline water causes the leaves and buds to fall off. And the stems begin to weaken and dry.