Abundant flowering, gorgeous, rich foliage, durable stem, developed root system - all this makes the flowers beautiful, strong, enhances their aesthetic qualities and, of course, pleases florist. But in order for the plants to be so, they need to be fed up, since the nutrients in the soil are not always enough. The article describes the features of fertilizing for indoor and garden flowers and their types.
What are fertilizers for flowers?
Any flower plants mostly need the NPK complex - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Therefore, in almost any fertilizer can be found in large or small quantities. But, in addition, the colors are needed: magnesium, manganese, boron, molybdenum, zinc, copper, iron and calcium. With a lack of one or more elements of one type or another, the flowers begin to ache. This can be expressed in the loss of leaves, drying, lack of flowering, reduction of buds, the development of disease and so on.
All types of fertilizers are divided into mineral and organic. They can also be one-component or complex depending on how many elements they contain.
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Humus and compost
Organic top dressing is preferable for garden flowers. The elements in them are in an easily digestible form, and there is no harm from them for the environment. The only thing that should be considered is the peculiarities of certain types of flowers. For example, humus and compost can be used for any crop (flower), but other organic matter may not be suitable for everyone. What are organic fertilizers?
- Bird droppings have a lot of useful substances, but they are always used in low concentrations, since they are much “stronger” than cow dung and many other fertilizers.
- Compost is usually brought in as mulch - just laid out over the ground. As watering nutrients will seep into the ground, and feed the plants.
- Peat is used only in some cases (for certain types of flowers) and is also popular as mulch.
- Wood ash (sometimes referred to as minerals). For flowers, take 1.5 st. spoon for 500 ml of water, infused 1-3 days and is used for watering.
- Infusions and decoctions are well established as additional feeding. Back in ancient times, watering of indoor and garden flowers used infusions of 25 g of onion husks per liter of water
- 1 pack of dry yeast and 3 tbsp. spoons of sugar are diluted in a bucket of water. Such fertilizing will stimulate the growth of flowers.
- Banana peel should be cut and simply buried in the ground under the bushes of indoor or garden flowers. As the decomposition of potassium and other beneficial substances in them will feed the earth and the roots of the plant.
- Manure can be used goat, sheep, horse, cow, but most importantly not pork! These types of manure are used only in the form of humus, as a fresh substance can burn sensitive stems and roots of flower crops.
As a rule, humus (in combination with phosphorus) is used in the fall, since it contains a high concentration of nutrients. If you scatter it on the ground, it will protect the roots and nourish them all autumn, and then the early spring, when with the melting snow the elements in its composition "go away" into the ground.
Mineral fertilizers for flowers
When there is no time to work with organic fertilizers, it is worth choosing a good mineral remedy. Minerals are one-component or complex. About complex preparations will be discussed in the next paragraph, and now it is worthwhile to dwell on the most well-known fertilizers, which include abundance of nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium - the most important elements for flowers.
This element contributes to the development and build-up of the green mass of the plant (stalks, leaves). If we talk about garden flowers, it is indispensable in spring, and during the second flowering (in summer or autumn), for indoor plants, this component is needed throughout the year, but in different concentrations.Important! All types of mineral fertilizers can feed both garden and indoor flowers, but the concentration of the drug will vary depending on the type of flower, the phase of its development, and the place of growth.
Nitrogen fertilizers should include: "Ammonium Chloride", "Ammonium Sulfate", "Calcium Nitrate", "Urea" (Urea), "Ammonium Nitrate", etc. which is just to deal with.
Phosphate fertilizers are needed during fruiting (fruit ovary), and therefore flowering plants. With a lack of phosphorus, there are few colors, and their condition leaves much to be desired (small, colorless, sluggish).Important! The disadvantages of mineral fertilizers include the fact that they worsen the acidity of the soil, as well as the fact that they do not have all the necessary nutrients.
The phosphate mineral fertilizers include: "Superphosphate", "Energen" (stimulant), "Buton", "Precipitate", "Phosphoritic flour", "Agricola" and others. And although phosphorus is important for crops, it is slowly assimilated, so it is only introduced in the fall and during the period of fruit set (seed boxes in flowers).
Activation of the protective forces of the plant, as well as its restoration, preparation for wintering or changing living conditions, occurs when a large amount of potassium is consumed. Therefore, after flowering, before frosts, drought, as well as in any stressful situation, the flowers are fed with potassium fertilizers.
Among potassium fertilizers, the most popular are: "Potassium Magnezia", "Potassium Sulphate", "Chalia chloride", "Potassium nitrate".
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Unlike drugs, which are based on one element, and all the others are additional (in minimal quantities), complex fertilizers contain 2-3 or more nutrient elements in the composition - this is the basis, which takes up 60% of the fertilizer. All other elements act as additional ones, and there are always a lot of them. From here and the name is a complex of useful substances.Important! In complex fertilizers, nitrogen should be up to 20% - this is the norm, since the main function of nitrogen is to increase green mass. If there is a lot of it, the flower may not enter the budding phase at all.
The most well-known complex drugs include: "Niroammofosku", "Pokon", "Master", "Nitrophoska", "Diammofos", "Kemira", "Ammofosku", "Ammophosphate", etc.
Top dressing of garden flowers
Flowers in the garden are most often fed with complex substances or organic matter containing an abundance of useful substances (compost, humus, and wood ash). Of the minerals is to choose drugs, where there is a mark "+7".
- Annual plants in the garden feed up about 2 times, because they live only a year and a lot of nutrients they do not need. The first feeding is usually made 2 weeks after planting in a permanent place, and the second - at the beginning of flowering (at the root).
- Perennials need at least 3 supplements per year: at the beginning of the season, at the beginning of flowering, after flowering. If the plant has faded in the spring, then in the fall the culture is once again fed up so that it will prepare for winter.
Do you need additional feeding for indoor flowers?
Top dressing of window plants
The task of indoor flowers to grow throughout the year. In winter, some species can go to the resting stage, but even at this time it is impossible to completely stop watering, most of them continue to let young leaves, develop and even bloom, and that is, consume elements from the soil. Therefore, care at home requires their regular feeding, even if the transplant into a new soil is carried out in a timely manner.Important! You can not make dressing for indoor flowers in the period of their rest, illness, immediately after the purchase or transplant.
If we talk about mineral dressings, then regardless of their type, such substances should be used only according to the instructions and never exceed the norm. Organic matter is less concentrated, but it should be used in moderation, and it should be borne in mind that it can have an unpleasant smell. As for the timing of fertilizing - it all depends on the type of culture. As a rule, top dressing is needed during the period of activization of growth and development, and for each indoor flower they may occur at different times of the year.
When choosing fertilizers for flowers in the garden or in the apartment, you must take into account the peculiarities of the plant species, as well as the soil in which it grows. And the main thing is never to forget the golden rule of any grower - it is better not to feed than to feed. Therefore, the concentration of minerals or organics should always be observed with precision.