Among the most common cultural colors are marigolds (Tagetes). These plants - the usual "guests" on the plot, flower beds, in the garden. They are used for medicinal purposes, as landscape decor and even as seasoning (imeretinsky saffron). These flowers are cultivated everywhere and especially varieties with large buds.
Description of marigolds
Photo flowers Tagetes
The homeland of the colors of marigolds or "Chernobrivtsev", as they are also called, is America, although they gained the greatest popularity in Ukraine and Russia. The stems of this plant are erect, branched, form a bush with a height of 20-120 cm, depending on the variety. The root system is pivotal. Pinto-dissected leaflets, rarely whole, dentate. Color can be from light green to dark green. Located opposite or alternately.Interesting! Since marigolds grow in a beautiful, compact bush and the color of the leaves always has an interesting contrast with the buds, this culture is often used in landscape design.
Inflorescences can be terry, semi-double, simple. The color of flowers is yellow, orange, different shades of brown, less often comes across white. Flowering takes place from spring to frost - depending on the climate, care and time of sowing. Fruit - oblate seed black or brown. Seeds retain their qualities for up to 4 years, then become unsuitable for sowing. The plant has a strong, persistent aroma, which one may seem specific, another unpleasant, and the third - refined.
Types and varieties of flowers TagetesRead also these articles.
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Types and varieties of flowers Tagetes
There are about 60 species of marigolds. All of them have their own characteristics, with only three types are the most common, namely: thin-leaved (Mexican), upright (African) and rejected (French).
- African erect marigolds are annual plants. Shrubs have a pronounced main shoot and a large number of side branches. Stems up to 1.2 meters tall, branched, with flowers up to 13 cm in diameter or less. Flowers monophonic or two-color. Flowering observed from the end of June.
- The French rejected marigolds, they are small-flowered, are a typical annual with a straight stem. Inflorescences of medium size or small, sit on thickened stalks. Leaves usually grow together. Flowering has been observed since mid-July.
- Mexican marigolds or thin-leaved ones grow in a small bush, up to 40 cm. It is an annual plant with dense and small foliage. Inflorescences are small, simple, located on a short peduncle.
The above are only the most famous species, but what about the varieties? There are quite a lot of them, so everything should not be listed, but the most impressive ones should be mentioned.
- "Gold Bol"- a sprawling plant belonging to the French species. The stems are erect. The leaves are bright green with barely noticeable brown specks. The inflorescences are bright yellow in color, terry - 6 cm in diameter, resemble a ball.
- "Golden ring"- A large variety of flowers Marigolds Mexican species. It grows up to 0.5 meters. Shoots are straight, but fragile, very sprawling. Flowers of this variety are small, up to 3 cm in diameter, bright yellow, terry, like pads. Blossom from the beginning summer and cold weather.
- "Golden ball"- a type of French type. Bushes are compact, up to 30 cm tall. Flowers are terry, like a pompon, hence the name. The flowers themselves are small, up to 2 cm in diameter, but beautiful. The color is golden. The variety is not afraid of frost, suitable for carpet beds .
- "Alaska"- an interesting upright shrub, included in the group of African marigolds. The stems are long, straight, grow up to a meter. The flowers have a diameter of 12 cm. The color is white-cream, delicate.
- "Lulu"- a variety of marigolds of the Mexican group. It has a spreading bush with thin leaves. The flowers are small, up to 3 cm in diameter, the color varies from yellow to lemon. It is recommended for cultivation in small beds.
How to grow and plant flowers marigolds?
The marigolds are propagated and planted in spring
Reproduction of marigold occurs, as a rule, seed method. This is an affordable, simple and most popular option. Seeds can be found in specialized stores, on the market, with acquaintances who grow them. They are purchased only for the first planting, and then the flowers themselves will produce fertile seeds, which are collected after the flowers wither. After extraction, they are dried and stored until spring.Interesting! If you need to get some unusual, rare variety, it is better to contact the specialized greenhouses, where they are engaged in breeding and breeding varieties. There, the buyer will be given not only quality seeds, but also present a certificate confirming the variety.
It is very important when sowing marigolds to make sure that the earth is loose. The ideal composition: sand, peat, humus and turf in a proportion of 0.5: 1: 1: 1, respectively. And to ensure rapid growth, it is worth fertilizing the land with any available fertilizer, except for fresh manure and bird droppings.
Sowing seeds is carried out in wide holes, slightly indented. The distance between the seeds should be an average of 1.5 cm. If you plant more densely, the seedlings will simply stretch out and rot, there will be no good. After sowing, sprinkle the crops with a thin layer of earth by 0.5-1 cm and pour. But you need to water a moderate amount of water, not abundant. When sprouts appear, you can transplant them to a permanent place, if the place of sowing is not suitable for one reason or another, or if there are too many sprouts. Depth during transplantation should be up to 3 cm.Interesting! Sometimes flowers marigold grown in room conditions. If you sow them in the fall in the pot, by the spring they will give the first flowers! But such buds, as in the open soil should not be expected, even with frequent dressings.
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Caring for the marigolds
This is an unpretentious plant, so care at home is accessible and understandable even to beginners. From care, he needs only minimal measures so that the culture does not dry up and blooms profusely.
- The place of growth must be sunny, so that the color is lush, saturated. Less bright and small flowers can be obtained when grown in shade or partial shade. The plant will develop even in such conditions, but much slower.
- Germination temperature + 22 ... +25 degrees Celsius.
- Draft should be avoided through natural or artificial protection (shrubs, other flowers, a fence, a hill, a wall of a house, etc.).
- Top dressing if introduced, then no more than once a month, otherwise the bush will give a lot of greenery, but flowering will be postponed indefinitely and will be scarce. Usually they are carried out 3 times per season: when the seedlings reach a height of 10 cm, when the first buds appear and by the beginning of flowering. Fertilizers are used complex.
- Watering at the beginning of growth needs moderate (so that the earth does not dry out). But when the bush reaches its natural size, and buds appear, watering is reduced, as an adult plant consumes less water, and stagnant moisture leads to rotting of the roots and stems.
- Weeds weed as they appear, and at the same time the ground is slightly loosened so that it will not be taken in by a thick crust, otherwise the leaves will dry.
- To the bushes were neat, beautiful, in the summer it is necessary to carry out trimming pruning. As buds bloom, they are removed.
- In the autumn, after withering and drying, marigolds are removed from the garden bed.
Diseases and pests
Marigolds have a rather strong aroma that is thinning not only into the air, but also into the ground. This smell protects the plant from fungal diseases and some pests, but, unfortunately, this is only a partial protection, so from time to time the bushes can hurt.
- To prevent the black leg from starting up in the flowerbed with marigolds, it is necessary to provide good drainage to the flowers before sowing. As a drainage, you can use expanded clay, coarse sand, crushed stone, covered with a layer of 3 cm.
- Spider mites, like other types of mites, appear if the marigolds are too dry at the growth site. You can defeat them with insecticides ("Kleschevit", "Tanrek", "Apache"), and for the prevention of increasing the number of waterings.
- In severe dampness, regardless of the strength of the fragrance of marigolds, rot and fungus settle on them. Moderate watering and good drainage will help to avoid problems, and to correct an already existing situation - treatment with a systemic fungicide like “Diskor”, “Previkur Energy”, “Maxim”, etc.
- If slugs or snails appeared on the flowerbed, it is worth using folk remedies or biological substances, but the main thing is not to be very poisonous, because the flowers do not like that very much.
- Gray decay appears from dampness, darkness, low temperature, thickening of crops. Manifested in the form of dark brown wet spots. Such affected leaves should be immediately destroyed, and the plant treated with tools like: "High", "Maxim", "Vectra".
Features marigold cultivation
Features marigold cultivation
Marigolds are successfully sown in the same place from year to year - no need to look for a new place. Transplantation is done very rarely and only in certain cases. For example, Chernobrivtsy, growing very densely, need a transplant, but only while they are small! This is done in order to thin the crops, as young flower growers do not always count the number of seeds per area or another, and as a result they get too many shoots.Important! When the flowers have stopped developing and do not give enough buds, culture should be fertilized, and next year, to find another place to sow, as most likely this site has already become poor.
If the site is too shaded, swampy, dry and completely unsuitable for the crop, it is worthwhile to find another place to plant, since it is impractical to replant already grown plants, and they will not give a good color in such a place.