When breeding bees you need to consider that in the winter, they hide in the hive from the cold weather and do not fly out until spring. They can either be left in the hive, a little warm from above, or you can build an omshanik for bees, where the hives will be transferred for the winter. The article will describe in detail what is omshanik and how to build it with your own hands.
What is omshanik for bees?
Omshanik for bees
Omshanik - This is a warm room, designed to place bee hives in it for the winter. It is very convenient to work in omshanik and for the entire cold period you will have to visit there only 3-4 times to check the condition of the hives, to identify possible pests, rodents, parasites or diseases (fungus).
Interesting! Omshanik for bees in the southern regions is not needed, since the winters are not very cold there and the bees can safely survive, even if the hive is standing outside.
Such winter premises for bees are usually small. The place in them is always used rationally - you just need to be able to properly place the hives so that they take up as little space as possible, and besides the hives there is actually nothing stored. True in the summer, when beehives on the street, such premises are often converted into utility rooms or storerooms. At 15-16 hives with bees, there is quite enough money in 9 square meters and up to 2.5 meters high or less.
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There are several types of omshanik, namely, ground, underground and combined. Of course, when choosing one of them you need to pay attention to personal needs, opportunities and preferences.
- Ground omshanik for bees are usually built by young beekeepers, who are still not sure if they will like this craft. In order not to spend money on an expensive underground space, they make a ground-based, seemingly similar to a simple shed. However, at least the construction of such a building does not take a lot of money and time, but in winter it will most likely have to be heated in the northern regions.
- Professional beekeepers with a long experience of work prefer underground omshanik. According to them, about the same temperature remains under the ground throughout the winter, and therefore, even in severe frost, it is not necessary to spend money on heating the room so that the bees do not freeze.
Interesting! When choosing the type of room you need to pay attention to the groundwater area. From the floor to the level of their location must be at least a meter, otherwise it will be damp in omshanik.
- The combined omshanik goes only 1-1.5 meters deep into the earth, therefore it cannot be called completely underground. This option is usually chosen if the groundwater is low. Plus the building is that it is more open, it is easier to enter into it (few steps), and the lighting there is natural, if you make the windows. Minus - in the loss of heat through the walls and windows.
The benefits of omshanik for bees
It is not just that beekeepers with great experience spend large sums on the construction of omshanik. These facilities have many advantages.
- Since the hives do not stand all winter under the snow, in the cold, they deteriorate much more slowly.
- In omshanik, in contrast to the street, there are no sharp temperature fluctuations, especially if it is underground. Therefore, the bees in them are much more comfortable to winter. As a rule, wintering losses in omshan are minimized in bee colonies. The exceptions are cases when a fungus or another disease dangerous to insects has been bred in the hive.
- Omshanik for bees provides insects with more comfortable wintering conditions. In turn, the bees behave approximately, eat much less (as there are no stress factors) and are less likely to get sick. Top dressing is carried out only in rare cases, if the winter has stood out protracted.
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Before building a omshanik for bees with your own hands, you need to study some mandatory points that it must comply with in order to be as comfortable and functional as possible.
- The size of the room must match the number of hives. The latter should be carefully arranged so that they occupy a minimum of space, and not instructed, so that it is not how to go. It is very important! You can come up with some kind of placement system or make shelving near the walls.
Interesting! If in the future the apiary will expand, it is recommended to make omshanik with regard to future, additional hives, so as not to finish building.
- Roof do sloping, so that the top is not accumulated snow. It is necessary to cover it with ruberoid, and on top also with slate, if possible.
- The number of entrances depends on the size of the room and the number of hives. From a practical point of view, 300 hives is enough room with one entrance. But if there are more hives, then it is worth making two doors.
- To keep the bees from freezing, you need to warm the omshanik. For walls, you can use any material (foam, fiberglass or something like that). The floor rises by 20 cm. The temperature in the omshanik should be no lower than +5 degrees, otherwise it will be necessary to make additional heating or to install a heater.
- Lighting. When the beekeeper comes into the omshanik for the bees to check the condition of his “wards” or hives, he will need light, otherwise he will simply not see anything. Therefore, in the case of ground-based premises, windows can be made, and in the case of underground space - artificial light. One, even a dim light bulb will be enough.
- So that water does not accumulate inside, and the air is not stale, it is worthwhile to build drainage systems, as well as to equip ventilation.
Underground omshanik do it yourself
Construction of an underground omshanik
Since the underground omshanik is the most popular type, it is worth highlighting the science of its construction, which, by the way, is not so difficult. If the beekeeper has all the necessary tools and sufficient funds for building material, there will be no problems.
- The first thing you need to find a good place under the omshanik. This should be a space protected from the wind and with a low level of groundwater.
- The pit for the future room rummages to a depth of about 2.5 meters and a width of 3x3 meters or more - depending on how many hives need to be hidden.
- Walls, floor leveling, as sudden drops here are undesirable. An exit is left for the stairs. It can be a folding ladder or stationary with a simple door in the roof - as convenient.
- Now you need to make a formwork under the foundation, pour it with concrete, and then lay the walls of brick. You can use another material, but the brick provides reliability and durability.
- From metal pipes or wooden bars is made the basis for the roof - the frame. He is bursting with omshanik for bees, maintaining his form. On top of the frame to cover the boards, and then cellophane, so that the tree does not get wet in the rain. From above the roof is covered with roofing felt or simply slate.
Important! After all the work, it is imperative to go through the mounting foam through all the cracks and holes so that the structure is protected from drafts and cold.
- Now you need to pay attention to ventilation. It is made either output (through pipes), or simply as a hole in the entrance door - according to the capabilities of the beekeeper.
- To make it convenient to descend, it is worth laying out the steps and conducting artificial light.
- On the side, near the walls, shelves for hives are made, shelves on which they will be placed.
For the combined omshanik pit is pulled out no more than 1.5 meters deep. All other actions are the same. Only instead of artificial lighting, you can make simple windows. But the ground omshanik looks like a barn or sennik. You can even retrofit existing space. However, it will have to be warmed, since, unlike the underground type, in a ground structure, air can freely walk through cracks, windows and doors.