Grapes - the useful culture used for making wine, vinegar, various dishes or fresh consumption. It is of different types, each of which has its own characteristics. White grapes are very popular both for fresh consumption and for the production of wines and other products. About the best varieties, their advantages and disadvantages can be found below in the article.
Features white grape varieties
White grape variety
According to international criteria, white grapes call all varieties with white, yellow or greenish berries, as yellow and green grapes are subspecies of white. It is technical and dining. The first is used exclusively for processing, the second for food. However, most technical varieties can also be used in food as table varieties for making wine, but this is rarely practiced.
Interesting! White grapes are considered the most common in the world. One kilogram of it contains the daily rate of trace elements needed by a person.
The chemical composition of white grapes is not the same as that of the pink, black or red species. It has an abundance of vitamins (A, B, C, E, K, PP), minerals (magnesium, iron, selenium, phosphorus), essential oils, organic acids, antioxidants. Approximate energy value of 100 g - 60 kcal. Although this figure can fluctuate significantly, as some varieties of white grapes are sweeter and others sour.
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The best varieties of white wine grapes
White grapes have more than 8,000 varieties. The best time-tested species are described below. Each of them has its own unique qualities, thanks to which they stand out among other species.
- "Arcadia" has another name - "Nastya", but it is extremely rarely called. This is an early and very common variety. The first bunch is removed in mid-July, but only when grown in a hot climate. The variety does not need pollination by bees, as it has bisexual flowers. Brushes tight, large, weighing about 1.5 kg, cylindrical. The berries are oval, with a pointed tip, fleshy, sweet, with a high content of juice and the flavor of nutmeg. The variety is not afraid of cold and frost, unpretentious.
- "Mascot" practically has no flaws, and therefore falls into this category. The only thing that needs to be noted is that when it is grown, additional pollination and rationing of the crop is needed. Otherwise, this medium early variety is almost perfect. His clusters are large - up to 1100 grams, loose, conical, transportable. Berries are sugary, aromatic. Productivity is high, resistance to frost down to -25 degrees.
Important! Even a good grape in an unfavorable place (on the plot) produces poor yields and often suffers. From this it follows that the choice of a place for landing must be approached responsibly!
- "White Muscat" belongs to the best technical grades of white grapes. It is very popular and valuable. Used for the manufacture of juices, dessert and table wines. Productivity is 60-100 c / hectare. Clusters small 100-450 g, cylindrical. Advantages: high sugar content, flavor. Disadvantages: low immunity, poor frost resistance, possibly polka.
- "Aligote" is a very simple variety, it has no pronounced flavor or taste, but it continues to occupy a leading position due to its excellent characteristics for more than 300 years. The yield of 90-140 c / ha. Maturation term - 130 days. The brush is small, weighing 100-110 g. Berries are yellow-green, small in a brown speck. Advantages: abundance of juice (78%), good chemical composition (for technical grade). Disadvantages: non-frost-resistant, weak immunity, during long transport chokes.
- "Chardonnay" - one of the most famous varieties. The term of maturation is 138-140 days. Clusters are mostly small, up to 90 grams. The berries are white and green, with a diameter of up to 1.6 cm. Up to 70 centners of grapes are harvested per hectare. It is not much, hence its increased cost. Pluses: taste, ideal for wine. Disadvantages: poor immunity, low frost resistance, early development of the kidneys.
Table grapes with stones
Table grades winerada
Table grapes are used for fresh consumption. These are sweet varieties, they can be with bones or without them. The taste of table variety should be pleasant, so not every variety can be attributed to this category.
- "White Cockle" An early variety of table grapes, ripens in 125 days. Flowers bisexual. Brushes average, about 600 g, in the form of a cone. The berries (12-14 g) are oval, light green, with a transparent skin, and a slight "tan". The taste is delicate, sweet - sugar content is 14-18%, acidity is 5 g / liter. It is resistant to frost down to -24, strong immunity, but does not tolerate drought.
- "Pleven steady" - early variety. Inflorescences bisexual. Clusters are friable, large, 500-1000 g. Berries of medium size, weighing 8 grams. The flesh is sweet (sugar content up to 20%), juicy, aromatic. 140 hectares of grapes are harvested per hectare per season (this is about 60 kg / bush). Advantages: not prone to pea, 90% survival rate of seedlings, frost resistance to -25 degrees, high immunity. Disadvantages: predisposition to certain diseases.
- "Delight white" has large, conical clusters weighing up to 2 kg, ripening in 120 days (early). Berries are fleshy, dense, oval, crunch when biting. The skin is delicate, easily chewed, but durable, so transportation over long distances usually does not harm the grapes. Productivity is 140 c / hectare. Advantages: taste, large berries, yield, high immunity, cold resistance (-26 degrees). Disadvantages: average rooting rate of cuttings and instability to phylloxera.
Important! The main disadvantage of almost all table grapes of white grapes is their demands for certain climatic conditions and care.
- "White Miracle" is one of the most common varieties in Russia and Ukraine, as it can withstand temperatures down to -25 degrees without insulation! Maturation occurs for 105-110 days. Bushes are not very high, clusters can weigh up to 900 g, not dense. The berries are large, high in sugar and only two seeds. Not sick oidium, gray mold, mildew. Ripe berries can be stored for a long time on the plant.
- "Tuzlovsky giant" ripens in 115-125 days. The brushes are large, up to 700 g, not dense. The berries are almost round, weighing 7-10 g, have a wax film. The flesh is juicy, the taste is harmonious, the aroma is pronounced strongly. The main drawback is low resistance to frost (-22 degrees), so the vineyard must be warmed.
Also in this category are such well-known varieties as: “Pearls of Sabo”, “New gift of Zaporozhye”, “Bazhena”, “Valentine”, “Irinka”, “Bulgaria”, “Elegant”, “Beauty of the North” or “Olga”.
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White seedless grapes
Recently, many varieties of seedless grapes have appeared due to the high demand for them. For the most part, all these varieties of white grapes are sweet, table, because the very idea of a seedless variety implies the convenience of its eating, and not processing.
- "Lady fingers" or "Husayne" known to almost all people who love grapes. It is mid-season culture with bisexual flowers. The clusters are friable, medium (400 g), the berries look like an elongated oval, the peel has a light touch. The flesh is sweet, aromatic, seedless. The main disadvantages: poor immunity to diseases, drought intolerance, low frost resistance.
- "White kishmish" attributed to the best seedless varieties. Despite the fact that nutritionists consider it very dangerous for its high sugar content, the prevalence of this variety is simply incredible. He is loved, bought, grown and consumed both in fresh and in processed form, although it refers specifically to table species. This is a mid-season grape with bisexual flowers. The clusters are large, cylindrical, with an average of 250 g. The berries are medium or small, oval, without seeds. The flesh is soft and sweet, with a pronounced aroma.
- "Century" - seedless table variety, ripening for 140 days. The weight of almost every brush reaches 1.5-2 kg, but sometimes it is less. The berries are oval, weighing 5-10 g, color greenish or yellowish, depending on the degree of maturation. The taste is delicate, sweet, there is a taste of tea rose and nutmeg aroma. Not afraid of frosts down to -23 degrees. Berries can crumble, so you need to harvest on time.
White grape varieties
White grape varieties
Unlike table varieties, white grape technical varieties are not used for food, but for processing. They make juices, vinegars, jams, raisins, jams, but mainly - wine.
- "Riesling" has an average ripening time. The clusters are small, weighing 100 g. The berries are small (2-3 g), spherical. The pulp is aromatic, the sugar content reaches 22% with an acidity of 6.5-10 g / liter. Frost resistance to -26 degrees. Disadvantages: affected by oidium. From this grade very refined, thin wines, with a saturated bouquet of aromas turn out.
- "Crystal" - ripens in 110-115 days. The variety was obtained in Hungary. Brushes are small, weighing 200 g, the berries are almost white, round. Advantages: not affected by gray mold, unpretentious in care, if properly planted, winter-hardy. Disadvantages: weak immunity to oidium, in need of proper lighting, can crumble.
Interesting! The most important requirement for technical grape varieties is large and stable yields.
- "Sylvaner" was bred in central Europe. Ripens in 140 days. The clusters are small, dense, weighing 90-110 g. The berries are small, spherical, often deformed. Color is light green with an abundance of brown speckles. There are few seeds, more often 2, but maybe more (less). Productivity is high. Immunity is average, so treatment is needed regularly.
Here it is necessary to include the varieties: "Muller-Thurgau", "Rkatsiteli", "Pinot Blanc", "Sauvignon", "Semillon".