Only the simplest grape varieties grow without care. But if we talk about good grapes, most of them are capricious and require special care and attention. How to care for grapes in spring, summer and autumn will be described below in the article.
Grape care in the first year of planting
What are the features of the first year after planting grapes? It is in the first year after planting that the grapes need thorough care. The future vineyard and the crop, which the gardener will receive annually, depends on the speed and quality of growth of the young bush. To avoid problems with shrubs, you need to figure out how to care for grapes in the first year after planting.
It is very important to care for grapes in the first year after planting.
During the first 2 weeks after planting, care is minimized. Bush only needs to be watered so that there is enough moisture. All other procedures can harm. But when it takes root, and the first buds begin to form, you can begin to loosen the soil, harvest all the weeds in the root zone. These are permanent events that are held as needed.
Important! In the first year after planting, it is necessary to provide the grapes with ideal conditions so that it adapts more quickly to new conditions and takes root.
As new stepsons and leaves appear, they need to be cut off, as they draw strength from the bush. If you leave them, the grapes will take root slowly and do not root well. In the fall, a full-scale pruning of the bush. It is important to leave no more than 4 shoots and remove the rest. Only the strongest, healthy stepchildren are left who can survive the winter.
Watering in the first year after planting is carried out almost every week, if there is no rain or they are weak, and do not particularly feed the land. Approximately 10 liters of water are poured into one bush at a time. If it rains often, it is worth reducing the amount of watering to a minimum (once every 3-4 weeks).
It is important! It is not difficult to care for grapes, but it is important to know the measure. Too much water can damage the grape root system. Therefore, it is better to water rarely and plentifully than too often.
As far as dressings, it all depends on how the grapes were planted. If the land for planting is well fertilized, then over the next 1-2 years you do not need to make fertilizer! It only hurts. If the earth was simple, it is worth making a supplement for the bush, namely nitrogen and phosphorus in a small amount ("Nitroammofoska", "Ammophoska universal", "Ammophos").
In the first year of bush growth, special attention is paid to the treatment of pests and diseases. In this case, it would be appropriate to handle a solution of 3% Bordeaux liquid, iron sulphate or 1% solution of the drug "Zineba" or "Ridomil".
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Mature grapes need regular care throughout the spring, summer and autumn. Only in winter you can not take care of this culture, but only look after the bush, so that if something happens in time to warm it. So, how to care for grapes in spring?
Spring care for grapes
- In early spring, if the bushes were covered, they are released from the shelter and they check the condition of the whole ground part of the plant.
- As the branches dry out, they are tied to a trellis, or any other support. Now it is important to begin to form a bush so that in the future there will be no problems with it. All bad branches, as well as unnecessary, cut off with a sharp shears.
- Even before budding, it is worth spraying the grapes against pests and diseases. Any available drugs are used, for example, Nitrofen (200 g of the drug per bucket of water), Bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate, Karbofos, Oksikhom. People use another means - before the buds bloom, the bushes are simply poured with boiling water (the water should not be very hot, but not warm - about 70 degrees or a little more so that the buds do not boil).
- Watering is carried out only if the winter was snowless. If there is enough snow, watering is needed only from the beginning of the summer or from the end of May. The first watering after a snowless winter should be done after the opening of the bushes. But it is important to make sure that there will be no more frost, otherwise watering will only harm the roots. The second watering is carried out 7 days before flowering.
- The awakened plant first of all needs nitrogen in order to start building up green mass faster and developing small roots. A little later, closer to the period of the formation of flowers, phosphoric substances are introduced so that the flowers do not fall off and good berries are formed. Both mineral substances ("Superphosphate", "Urea") and organic matter (humus, wood ash) are used for this.
What does grapes need in summer?
Since it is necessary to take care of the grapes in a timely manner, it is worthwhile to determine what kind of care measures should be taken in this or that period. Summer procedures are usually aimed at the formation and development of clusters, at improving the quality and taste of berries.
Summer procedures are usually aimed at the formation and development of bunches of grapes.
- Watering in the summer is often, especially if there is no rain at all, which is not uncommon for this season. If necessary, the plant is watered every 3-7 days, but it is important to ensure that the water does not stagnate. In this case, better less often than often. If the grapes give ripe berries in the summer, then approximately 1-2 weeks before picking, watering is stopped so that the berries will acquire a rich taste.
- With the emergence of new stepsons, shoots, they need to break off. But this is done only if they are unnecessary or hinder the development of the plant. The same applies to extra foliage. And in order to grow large and tasty bunches, their number is controlled. Usually they leave only the largest, most beautiful, and the rest break off so that the plant does not waste their strength on them.
- Fertilizers are applied only if the plant is sluggish, grows slowly, does not develop. Potassium-phosphate fertilizers are important for the formation of grapes for grapes: "Superphosphate", "Potassium Sulphate" and the like.
- From time to time it is worth checking the shrub for the presence of parasites, any diseases. If they are noticed, the bush is treated with appropriate insecticides or fungicides.
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The last period of grape care is autumn. This is the time of the main harvest, the restoration of the plant and its preparation for the winter. How to care for grapes in the fall? The procedures are almost the same as in other periods, but have their own specifics.
Grape care in autumn
- First of all, after harvesting, you need to clean the bushes from dry leaves. Under the bushes a thorough cleaning is carried out, and the earth is loosened. Pruning in the fall may not be carried out if it is done in the spring, but removing the dried vine does not hurt.
Important! Any preparatory work for the winter, carried out only after the last harvest from the bushes!
- Fertilizing is usually carried out with organic fertilizers (compost, humus, ash) about a month before frost. It is best to line the fertilizer under a bush 5-7 cm thick. This mulch will protect the roots of the grapes from the cold and will feed them until the first frost.
- Watering is carried out only if there is little or no rain. However, before the last manure of the bushes, planned irrigation is carried out in order to saturate the vineyard with moisture before long winter.
- Spraying against pests and diseases is recommended, since it is in the fall that plants are massively attacked by pests that are looking for a “shelter” for the winter. For spraying use: "Marshal", "Konfidor", "Neoron", "Topaz", "Ridomil", "Tilt", "Shavit" and other drugs.
If the winters are very cold, there are early frosts, it is worth making shelter for the grapes for the winter. This can be either a wooden frame with a stretched insulating material, or simply wrapping the plant with agrofibre or a similar material.