Apple trees, like all other fruit trees, are subject to various diseases. And although it is not difficult to identify the problem, it is sometimes difficult to determine the type of the disease and its treatment. The article describes the disease of apples, their symptoms, treatment and prevention.
Diseases of apple trees are common and rare. Mealy dew is one of the most frequent problems of this tree. It affects the leaves, buds, young and mature shoots, inflorescences. The main feature is white bloom, which is quite easily erased. After a time, it becomes brown and is taken in a dense crust.
Apple Powder Dew
To combat it, the tree is sprayed with the drug "Skor" or "Topaz", "Fundazol", "Tilt", "Raek", "But". They all have a good action. Colloidal sulfur (80 g of sulfur in a bucket of water) is also suitable at an early stage. After the tree has faded, it is sprayed with copper oxychloride. After harvesting, the processing is done by copper sulphate. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to cut the tree annually, remove excess pagons, and then burn them outside the site.
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Downy mildew or peronosporosis is a type of powdery mildew. It begins in the same way - from brown spots, which then take on a gray or purple color and increase, thicken and become brown in the last stage. The affected part (leaf, flower) quickly deteriorates, falls.
Downy Apple MildewImportant! Downy mildew most actively develops at a temperature of + 18 ... +29 degrees and a humidity of 60-80%.
To combat the disease, the drug "Kurzat", "Ordan", "Baksis", "Bordeaux mixture", "Copper Oxide" is used. Treatment for apple disease is carried out once a week. From folk remedies suitable solution of potassium permanganate, 1% colloidal sulfur, soap and soda solution (40 g of soap and 50 g of soda for a bucket of water). Suitable in this case, if the disease is not running, and iodine milk (10-12 drops of 5% iodine per liter of skim milk).
Scab on apple tree
Scab affects always the first leaves, and then the apples on the tree. See the foci of the disease can be in the spring. On the leaves you will see brown-green specks (accumulation of fungal spores). These leaves dry very quickly, fall off, and the disease passes to the neighboring leaves and fruits. On scab apples appears as an abundance of brown specks. They are small or medium in size, but due to the large number, they are easy to spot.
The scrub needs to be treated in the spring
The treatment of this apple disease is carried out in several stages. If the disease is detected in early spring, before bud break, the tree is sprayed with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture. Then, after flowering, you need to process the apple tree again, but with a 1% solution of the same substance. It can be replaced by "Kuprozan". The third treatment is carried out with the preparation "Skor", "Ditan" or "Chorus" 2-3 weeks after the last spraying.
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Monilioz is one of the most dangerous diseases of apple trees. Manifested in the form of brown spots on fruits that are rapidly increasing in size. Over time, white, bulging points appear on them (the place where fungal spores accumulate). An infected apple can either hang on a tree and gradually dry, or fall and shatter, while the spores of the fungus are released, scatter and damage neighboring plants.
Fruit Rot or Apple Moniliasis
To cure this disease, apple trees need to pluck and burn all the affected fruits, and the tree itself should be treated with a 1% Bordeaux mixture solution. After the crop is harvested, the tree is sprayed with blue vitriol, and all the fallen leaves are burned outside the site.
Diseases of apple trees, which lead to the complete extinction of the tree, develop within 2-3 years. If they appear, you need to forget about the harvest, and think about saving the crop, because if you don’t respond, the apple tree will not survive and then the next few years (until a new tree is planted and grown), the gardener will be deprived of sweet fruits.
Milky luster can kill the whole tree.
Milky luster can kill a part or a whole tree. It occurs during severe frosts that damage the buds, leaves, bark of young twigs. The main symptom is air accumulations under the surface of the leaf. After a while they turn white, and the sheet becomes silver. These leaves die off, and then other leaves, twigs and even the trunk of a tree are struck and die.Important! The easiest method of dealing with milky luster or preventing this disease is to plant frost-resistant trees or simply warm and whiten apple trees for the winter.
The treatment consists of proper fertilizing - enhancing the immune system of the tree. For this, it is fed with phosphorus and potassium. The affected areas are cut, torn and burned. But if this does not help, it remains only to uproot the tree and burn it, otherwise the milky luster can spread to the neighboring trees.
Cytosporosis causes the drying of individual sections of the apple tree, and then the whole tree. This apple disease can completely destroy it in a couple of years. The main symptom is ulcers, open wounds at the base of the tree and on separate branches, through which other dangerous diseases can fall. They grow rapidly, then darken and the affected lesions die off.
Whitewashing saves the tree from cytosporosis
For treatment using the drug solution "HOM". They sprayed the tree in early spring, when identifying the first signs of the disease. Then, before flowering, the apple tree is sprayed with blue vitriol, and after flowering, once again with HOM. So that the tree does not hurt, it should be regularly fed with phosphorus and potassium in order to increase immunity, and also to bleach once a year - before winter frosts.Important! To make the tree whitening process more efficient, you should apply whitewash in 2 layers with a break of 2 hours.
Black cancer is the case of apple disease, when treatment is needed at the onset of the first symptoms. The longer the grower pulls with the treatment, the less likely the tree will survive. Brown spots appear on the leaves, flowers and fruits, the trunk and twigs gradually die off, but initially there are cracks (wounds) on them which are brown in color.
Black crab appleImportant! If you do not immediately begin treating a tree for black cancer, it will most likely die. If the apple tree is not destroyed by this disease, then any other one that can get into the tree through its open wounds on the trunk and twigs will do it.
To save a tree you need to literally cut a disease out of it. All affected branches, fruits, flowers and leaves break and burn. Wounds on the alignment and branches are cut with a sharp knife. During cutting, it is important to hook on a healthy part of the bark and wood. After that, the places of cuts and cuts are processed with 5% solution of ferrous sulfate, and then they are sealed with clay. To further prevent the disease, it is necessary to spray the tree at least 2 times a year with a solution of 1% Bordeaux mixture.
Diseases of apple trees that are difficult to treat, it is desirable not to allow at all and to carry out preventive measures from them. But if they have appeared, it is worth starting treatment immediately. European cancer, or as it is called "Ordinary" - is practically not treated. Most often the tree is uprooted. What is this disease?
The open form of European cancer of apple
European cancer is manifested in the form of growths on the branches or trunk of a tree, large and deep cracks. Most often, they are sick of trees with a weak immune system, but there are exceptions, so that no one is immune. It has two forms: open and closed. The first is manifested in the abundance of flows and a thin slit with rot. The second is expressed in large open wounds on the tree, which do not overgrow, but only rot.Important! The most active disease manifests itself in severe frost or heat.
The treatment is the same as in the case of black cancer, it does not always help, so it’s rare to wait for a significant effect.
As a rule, the disease of apple trees is immediately visible and can be cured if desired. But in the case of root cancer, things are not so simple. The disease manifests itself in the ground, namely in the roots, it is very difficult to notice it, if you do not dig out the roots. The tree gradually dies, and the gardener simply does not know the reason and how to help the apple tree.
Root cancer appears due to bacteria
The bacterium that causes root cancer settles on the roots of an apple tree. She gets there through the wound, and then develops. At the site of infection appear solid growths, which are sometimes destroyed, and then the bacterium falls on other roots or in the soil, where it waits for a new suitable victim.Important! The root cancer bacterium feels best in weakly alkaline and neutral soil. But the acidic environment is dangerous for her!
So that the disease does not appear, it is necessary to properly prepare the ground for planting a tree, disinfect it, fertilize it with good fertilizer (quality). Saplings before planting are checked for the presence of wounds in the root system, abnormal growths. If any, they are cut out with the capture of a healthy root, and then the root is disinfected in a solution of copper sulfate for 5-7 minutes. But it is better to check the seedlings before planting and do not plant diseased apples.
Rust is an infectious disease. It appears on the leaves and fruits in the form of small spots of orange or reddish color. Black dots appear on the leaves, and nipple growths can be seen on the back side. A diseased tree has an impaired water balance, its growth is slowing sharply, photosynthesis, the leaves fall off, just as the fruits are not armored.
Apple Fruit RustImportant! Juniper is a frequent rust spreader. Grow it next to the apple trees can not be!
The treatment is to remove all affected areas of the tree (branches, leaves, fruits). Places of cuts or cuts need to be treated with bluestone and covered with garden pitch. Then the tree is sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquids every 2 weeks.
Apple diseases have their own character. Each of them has its own symptoms and features, not knowing which can harm the tree. Phyllostiktosis (brown spotting) begins with the appearance of brown or brownish-black specks on leaflets. In this case, the leaves begin to fall off quickly, and this adversely affects the fruits and their ripening.
Brown spot of appleImportant! Copper-containing preparations should not be used against brown spot. They only enhance the development of the disease.
The treatment involves the destruction of the affected leaves, as well as the treatment of the garden with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate.
Bacteriosis or bacterial burn can destroy a tree in a matter of months, if you do not quickly respond to the development of the disease. Manifested in the form of a thin film or droplets on the surface of the apple tree. As a rule, they appear after flowering of the tree. The flowers become watery, quickly wither, and the fruits acquire brown spots that grow rapidly.
The active period of bacteriosis development is spring, when the temperature reaches + 18 ... +20 degrees Celsius and high humidity is observed. There are no effective drugs against bacteriosis.
But it is possible to carry out preventive measures: check seedlings before planting, conduct regular pruning, burn fallen leaves, check trees and feed them properly.