Growing pears in the garden you need to be prepared for the fact that sooner or later they can cause disease. But what exactly is the pear sick? This tree carries on its eyelid many diseases, each with its own symptoms and treatment. Pear diseases and their treatment methods will be described below.
Scab on pear
Diseases of pears threaten the entire crop and even the life of the tree, so you need to deal with them immediately. Scab - a common problem of gardeners. Its causative agent is the fungus Fusicladium pirinum, attacking the leaves and fruits of the tree.
Scab on pear leaves
The first sign - olive spots on the back of the leaves. This is the spores of the fungus. After their appearance, the fruits begin to rot, crack, the flesh hardens. If the pears were affected in the developmental stage, then their curvature can also be observed.
For treatment using a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquids. They are sprayed with trees when leaflets appear, then during the appearance of buds and after flowering. If the disease does not go away, you can use the solution "Bottom", "Skor" or "Nitrofen".
For prevention, it is necessary to cut off extra branches in time so that there is good illumination and ventilation, to burn old, fallen leaves. And in order not to interfere with the development of scab on trees, it is worth planting varieties resistant to it, for example, "Janvarskaya", "Muratovskaya" or "Rusanovskaya".
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The mushroom Erysiphales causes the appearance of such a disease of pears as powdery mildew. It is very easy to identify it at an early stage, in the spring. There will be a whitish bloom on the young leaflets that have just blossomed, which is not typical for a pear. Over time, as the leaf grows, the fungus develops and the color changes from milky to red. Sometimes the leaves do not have time to fully develop to normal size, they simply dry out and crumble, if the disease passes in severe form. But, as a rule, powdery mildew develops gradually, and leaves fall off only in summer.
Pear Fruit Mealy Dew
Prophylactic measures against the disease include the timely removal of dry pagons, cutting wood. All cropped twigs with and without foliage must be burned immediately. From the disease tree can save both traditional and traditional methods. The first include spraying "Sulfite" or "Fundazole." To the second - spraying with 1% solution of potassium permanganate or a mixture of 10 g of liquid soap, a bucket of water and 50 g of soda ash.
So that the pear never hurts with powdery mildew, it is worth buying varieties resistant to it: "Muscovite", "January", "Dukhmyanaya".
The people of the disease of pears have their own, special names. Black cancer, called "Antonov fire." This is a very dangerous disease that manifests itself for several years, and then the tree dies. Antonov's fire initially strikes the bark, small cracks appear in it, the size of which increases all the time. It is easy to find them - brown spots will be visible on the edges of the cracks - these are open wounds of the tree, where various pests, diseases, fungal spores and so on fall.
Black pear crab kills woodImportant! Black cancer is dangerous because it not only kills the tree on its own, but also provokes the development of other diseases. In the complex, they can destroy a pear 2 times faster!
What to do when the disease appears? The first thing recommended is to cut the affected bark with a sharp knife, grabbing a healthy part of the tree. The wound is treated with a solution of copper sulfate, covered with clay mixed with a mullein, and then wound with a bandage, a cloth — with any available clean material. As a preventive measure, it is worthwhile to timely trim, all old shoots and leaves are utilized outside the garden.
Such varieties of pears as "Samaritan woman" and "August dew" show resistance to black cancer.
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Monilioz occurs in the presence of the fungus Monilia fructigena. First of all, brown spots appear on the fruits. After this growths appear, they contain spores of the fungus. They are spread around the garden, trees by the wind, birds, insects. The flesh of such a pear does not have the same wonderful taste, it becomes loose, fresh, unpleasant both externally and in taste. Part of the fruit can crumble, the rest dry on the twigs, then fall, and the spores of the fungus spread around the site and infect other plants.
Fruit rot or Monilioz pear can be curedImportant! Fruit rot develops fastest during hot and humid weather.
As a preventive measure, timely cutting, collecting and burning diseased fruits are recommended. In the spring and autumn spraying is carried out with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. If the disease has already developed, and the previous spraying of the results did not give, apply the drug "HOM". You can use other substances like "Baikal", "Actofit", "Ekoberina". In March and November, wood is treated with lime (1 kg of lime per bucket of water).
There are no varieties of pears that have 100% protection against fruit rot, but some species are more or less resistant to its effects. Among them there are: "Cheremshina", "Honey", "Autumn Dream".
There are dangerous and non-dangerous diseases of pears. The former can destroy a tree in a few years, if not months, with others you can successfully fight for 5 years or more. For especially dangerous diseases pears include a bacterial burn. Erwinia amylovora - bacterial burn pathogen. The first signs - wilting inflorescences in the spring, when the pear blooms. Sluggish inflorescences become dark brown, the leaves quickly curl, turn black and fall off. First the young shoots die off, then the bark of the tree.
Bacterial Pear BurnImportant! If the variety is not resistant to a bacterial burn, then most likely the tree will die without emergency and radical assistance. If the variety is stable, the tree will still hurt in severe or mild form. But after 1-2 years will be able to fully recover.
The first thing to do when detecting a disease is to give affected leaves, shoots, if necessary, part of the bark, and then burn off the site. Slices are treated with copper sulfate or antibiotics (sold in gardening stores). A solution of antibiotics (usually taken 2-3 tablets per liter of water), sprayed the whole tree, including the place that was cut. If a disease is detected on the site, it is worth about 9 times per season to spray the tree with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid for prevention.
Varieties "Muratovskaya", "Moskovskaya" and "Yanvarskaya" are considered resistant to bacterial burns.
This pear disease, caused by the fungus Pucciniaceae, is often the cause of the slow wilt of the tree. If no action is taken, it will simply die. So it is necessary to fight rust at the first sign of its manifestation. Initially, on the leaves, and sometimes the fruits appear light yellow spots, over time they become the color of rust (hence the name). There are usually many spots, they are medium or small in size, spread throughout the tree or in a separate part of it (if it is an early form of the disease).
Pear leaf rust is dangerous
The first thing to do in the struggle for the health of the culture is to remove and burn all the affected fruits. Then the tree is sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid. Ideally, it is sprayed with a pear in early spring and after flowering - this is usually enough for prevention. In autumn, all the fallen leaves are removed and burned outside the site. Instead of Bordeaux fluids, you can use "Baileton" - a systemic fungicide. It is effective, but they are sprayed at least 5 times per season.
If the disease actively manifests itself on the site, it is difficult to remove it, and it will not hurt to treat the area of the tree trunk with the solution of "Urea" after the first frost. And so that it does not damage the roots, you should use warm water, and then mulch the earth.
Pears diseases are not always widespread, some of them are rare. Unlike many other diseases, soot fungus does not often occur, for this reason it is only sometimes possible to recognize and take appropriate measures in time. The first symptoms of the disease are blackening of the leaves. The subsequent symptoms are black plaque on the leaves and fruits, outwardly it is very similar to soot, hence the name. The young trees in the garden are always the first to be affected, and then the disease spreads to adult pears.
Aphids cause black fungus pearsImportant! The black fungus is a frequent consequence of aphids in the trees, because it feeds on sugary secretions of pests. But, besides, the tree damaged by pests has a weak immunity. Therefore, black fungus can cause not only damage to the crop, but also the death of the tree.
As prevention, the drug "Calypso" (from pests) and "Fitoverm" (from the spread of fungal spores) is used. The latter is used immediately after the first. Only a few varieties of pears are resistant to this disease. The most famous species is the "Cathedral" pear.
The cytosporosis of pears is popularly called "stem rot." It appears when the cytospora leucostoma is present on the tree. Diseases of pears always have their obvious symptoms. In this case, there is a red-brown foci of inflammation right on the trunk. Over time, the bark begins to dry.
Pear cytosporosis is difficult to cure
To fight the disease is not easy. First you need to cut off the affected part of the bark (as in the case of black cancer), then smear the cut point with copper sulphate and on top of the clay. If the clay spreads, you can wrap over the place of processing with a clean cloth or a bandage. Prevention consists in regular pruning, destruction of pests, other diseases, old fallen leaves under a tree.Important! So that cytosporosis does not appear on a tree, it is worth every autumn, before winter to whitewash a tree, as our grandmothers and great-grandmothers did. This is really a very effective method of national prevention.
The "January" pear and "Moskvichka" are resistant to cytosporosis.
Pests and their negative impact
Above we have described the diseases of pears, which often affect this culture. But where do they come from? Most often, fungal spores are spread by wind or pests. And if the wind can not be controlled, then pests can be.
Pests adversely affect the treeImportant! If you do not fight pests, various diseases will appear on the tree sooner or later!
For pears, the most dangerous are slugs, sawflies, mites, haws and ants. At the first signs of the appearance of these insects, systemic insecticides should be used. Among those that have established themselves better than others it is worth mentioning: “Karbofos”, “Iskra”, “Neoron”, “Kinmiks”, “Tsitkor” and others. You can use the folk remedies, but they work well only as a preventive measure.