When breeding chickens should always be prepared for the fact that the bird can get sick. There are a lot of varieties of chicken diseases, each with its own characteristics, methodology of infection, development, influence on an individual, consequences. In any case, only timely detection of the problem allows you to call the veterinarian in time and proceed to treatment. Diseases of chickens, symptoms of diseases and their treatment at home will be described below in the article.
What is the danger of chicken diseases?
What are dangerous diseases of chickens? Some breeders may consider it superfluous to monitor the health of their birds, but this is wrong, as this is a very important part of caring for the bird, which cannot be neglected. Moreover, the health of chickens for the breeder is beneficial for several reasons.
- The meat of a sick bird or its eggs can affect human health. Patients should not be allowed for meat. Even the eggs of such chickens are not recommended to eat. Nobody will allow them to sell them on the market, since before selling the products are inspected, and the breeder must provide documents on the health and condition of the birds.
- If the breeder simply slaughters sick individuals, it will simply be at a loss. Birds get sick often. And not all their diseases are deadly or dangerous. It is much more profitable to cure a sick individual and continue to fatten it further or receive valuable testicles from it.
- Some diseases of chickens develop very quickly and lead to an epidemic not only in a separate henhouse, but even in the whole village. That is, the negligence of one person can lead to the fact that in the whole village chickens will massively die. This does not contribute to friendly neighborhood relations, good relations with veterinary clinics or even with law enforcement agencies.
Attention is always required from the breeder, because it is he who can identify the problem in time and start treating the disease. All that is needed is to call the vet, understand what more the bird and fix the situation.
Photo of healthy chickens
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Infectious diseases of chickens are caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi. Such diseases usually develop very quickly, have a severe course, certain symptoms and mass distribution, and it is problematic to treat at home.
Only some viral diseases of chickens can be cured, for the most part they are incurable. After determination of the disease, sick individuals are slaughtered, and the rest of the birds in the chicken coop are transferred to quarantine in order to identify possible new cases of the disease. However, there are vaccines for some of these diseases, so timely vaccination can save livestock.
- Newcastle disease or as it is called pseudo-birds. Belongs to the class of especially dangerous. Not only all species of hens are subject to it, but also geese, sparrows, ducks, pheasants, and pigeons. Sometimes a person becomes infected with it. But on the human body, it is reflected simply in the form of a cold, recovery takes place in 4-5 days.
Birds die from pseudo-pills in a couple of days. Mortality rate of 70-100%.
Symptoms: cough, discharge from the eyes and nose, diarrhea, internal hemorrhages. In rare cases, individuals die for no apparent reason. Vaccinated individuals are reflected in the form of problems with the nervous system.
Patients are usually slaughtered immediately, and for healthy ones vaccination with special preparations is carried out (“Virusvaccine against Newcastle Disease”).
- Bird flu or bird plague - a mutable virus that constantly mutates. For humans, it does not represent a serious danger, but is reflected in the form of a cold. An exception is the H5N1 strain.
Mortality among birds is 70-100%. The development of the disease is rapid.
Symptoms: lethargy, swelling of the neck and head, blue comb, earrings, mucous membranes. A few hours before death, the bird falls into a coma.
There are no vaccines for this disease, all sick individuals and contact birds are slaughtered using the bloodless method and burned.
- Marek's disease very dangerous for newborns, but this disease of chickens often affects adults too.
Symptoms: paralysis of a certain part of the body, the nerves of which are affected by the disease, an increase in internal organs, a change in the color of the pupil.
Patients are slaughtered immediately. It is possible to eat only poultry meat (internal organs are burned), but only under the condition that there are no signs of rebirth. Avivak-Marek-3 vaccination of day-old chicks can be prevented.
- Gumboro or infectious bursal disease of chickens affects the immune system. However, only individuals are threatened from 2 to 20 weeks. Its main danger lies in the fact that the bird almost disappears immune system, so it can easily get any other infection.
Symptoms: yellow-white diarrhea, loss of appetite, lethargy, ruffled feathers, muscle tremors, horny cloaca. Sometimes there are no signs of the disease at all.
Sick individuals are killed. But their meat is edible after long cooking. The house is being disinfected. As for the vaccination of other individuals, sometimes veterinarians insist on it, but in rare cases you can do without it, on the fear and risk of the breeder. Hepraviar-TRT4 vaccine is used.
- Infectious bronchitis affects individuals of any age. Laying eggs that hurt them, reduce egg production by more than 2 times, and those eggs that are given usually have damage to the shell. The weight of the sick bird is also greatly reduced.
Mortality - 10-35%.
Symptoms depend on who suffers the disease. In layers, organs of the reproductive system are affected, and in young, organs of the respiratory system. With bronchitis, individuals become lethargic, cough, runny nose, inflammation of the nasal mucosa, eyes may appear. Breathing is difficult, the beak is almost all the time open. The bird pulls his neck out to breathe, the characteristic wheezing is heard.
With the acute development of this disease of chickens, the bird is slaughtered. In chronic cases, broad-spectrum antibiotics are fed, aerosol treatments are carried out (Monklavit, Ecocide, Iodine Chloride, ASD-2).
- Pneumovirus rhinotracheitis or big head syndrome. An infectious disease of chickens that affects the upper respiratory tract.
Symptoms: an increase in the head, watery eyes, swelling of the eyelids.
The treatment is the same as in the case of bronchitis chickens. Chickens recover quickly, but after an illness they severely inhibit their development.
- Infectious laryngotracheitis usually strikes young individuals, up to 9 months, but birds of any age are in danger.
Symptoms: shortness of breath, mucus from the eyes, nose, cough, wheezing, lack of air. Death occurs due to blockage of the respiratory system with mucus, blood clots and products of inflammation.
Patients are slaughtered and healthy vaccinated with Avivak-ILT.
- Smallpox birds affects more than 60 species of birds.
Mortality rate is 5–8% for skin form and 50–70% for diphtheria.
Symptoms: when the skin form appears nodules (pock marks), on those parts of the body where there is no plumage. Over time, they merge into a smallpox scab. Diphtheric form manifests as a lesion of the respiratory system (trachea, larynx, nasopharynx).
Depending on the degree of development and severity of the disease, sick individuals can be treated or immediately scored. The treatment consists in smearing with oils and ointments of pockmarks. For prevention give antibiotics.
Bacterial diseases of chickens
Bacterial diseases of chickens are usually well treated, but can also seriously threaten the lives of birds, especially if you do not respond in time to obvious symptoms. It is possible to fight bacterial diseases of chickens at home, but it is better to do this under the supervision of a veterinarian.
- Salmonellosis is transmitted by salmonella bacteria. Dangerous not only for chickens, but also for humans. When infected, a person develops a toxicoinfection.
Symptoms: lethargy, drowsiness, loss of appetite, pus from the nose, diarrhea, weakness, inflammation of the joints.
Sick birds otpaivayut antibiotics ("Gentamicin", "Neomycin", "Enrofloxacin", "Tetracycline"). Introduced serum against the pathogen of salmonella "Vaccine OKZ". It can also serve as a vaccine for young, healthy individuals. There is no meat or eggs of such chickens!
- Pulloz-typhus caused by a salmonella subtype. Recovered laying hens reduce egg production by 50%.
Mortality rate up to 70%.
Symptoms: slimy diarrhea, loss of appetite, death in 1-2 days.
The treatment is the same as with salmonellosis.
- Colibacteriosis - A disease that develops when it enters E. coli.
Symptoms: diarrhea, thirst, loss of appetite, lethargy, inflammation of the joints.
Treatment is to improve the quality of feeding, feeding with antibiotics ("Doksitetratsiklin", "Enrofloxacin", "Oxytetracycline"). “Furazolidone” is added to the diet.
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Fungal diseasesWe recommend reading our other articles.
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Fungal diseases of chickens usually occur due to poor-quality nutrition, maintenance, care. The most dangerous and common disease is aspergillosis. It is caused by the aspergilus mold. The fungus is transmitted along with moldy food, dirty water, and life in unsanitary conditions. To cope with fungal diseases at home is possible without the involvement of a veterinarian.
Symptoms are obvious. The bird becomes slow, breathing is fast, difficult, it literally does not have enough air. Sometimes there is a cough, sneezing, inflammation of the eyes, nose, diarrhea, exhaustion. Death occurs as a result of paralysis in a few days or weeks.
Treat aspergillosis with iodine inhalation, Revolin, Nystatin. Instead of water for 4-5 days given a weak solution of copper sulfate (1: 2000).
What non-communicable diseases can appear in chickens?
Non-contagious diseases of chickens usually appear due to poor feeding, lack of vitamins, poor-quality content. It is worth noting that they do not pass by themselves and can also threaten the life of the bird.
- Atonia goiter appears with poor nutrition. Food simply overwhelms the bird's goiter and literally blocks its breath, the jugular vein, which leads to the death of the individual.
Symptoms: drooping, hard or simply enlarged goiter.
The treatment is to introduce vegetable oil into the goiter (no more than 50 ml) through the probe. Then it is massaged, then try to remove the content of the goiter through the esophagus. After the procedure a solution of potassium permanganate (weak) is poured into the goiter.
- Bronchopneumonia - A dangerous disease of chickens, develops due to hypothermia birds. This is a very dangerous disease, since death comes already on day 4.
Symptoms manifest as general exhaustion.
Treatment is not always possible, how to identify the disease is difficult even for a specialist. So that the bird does not hurt, you just need to maintain a normal microclimate in the hen house.
- Avitaminosis It is caused by a lack of vitamins.
Symptoms can be very diverse, depending on what vitamins are missing.
The treatment is very difficult, as the disease still needs to be identified, and this is not easy. So it is better to simply avoid problems and include additional vitamins in bird nutrition.
- Cloacite appears due to improper feeding or maintenance. In laying hens it sometimes appears when the egg leaves the wrong way.
Symptoms: inflammation of the cloaca.
Treatment consists of washing the cloaca with a solution of potassium permanganate. As well as lubricating it with petroleum jelly, tetramycin or anesthesin.
- Gastroenteritis - inflammation of the intestines and the walls of the stomach due to poor nutrition or a sharp change in diet.
Symptoms: diarrhea, weakness.
Treatment depends on each individual case. Only a veterinarian should make this diagnosis, as diarrhea and weakness are symptoms of many diseases.
- Dyspepsia - a type of gastroenteritis, only manifested exclusively in young animals. Symptoms are the same, treatment also requires consultation with a veterinarian.
- Keratoconjunctivitis appears if there is a lot of ammonia vapor in the hen house.
Symptoms: inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract.
This chicken disease is treated with a simple decoction of chamomile, which is used to wash the eyes of birds. But before that you need to remove ammonia in the room and organize good ventilation.
What parasites can threaten chickens?
It is also worth noting that chickens are often affected by internal and external parasites. Harmful insects can even lead to the death of birds, as they carry infections (diseases of chickens) and may simply cause irreparable harm by their influence. In addition, there is poultry meat, a patient with worms is not recommended.
- Internal parasites are roundworm and heterekidoza (worms). Their treatment consists in feeding with the drug "Fenpenvet".
- Bedbugs spoil the feathers and down of the bird, causing it discomfort. Chickens become nervous, egg production and appetite may decrease. Bedbugs are usually removed by simply treating the chicken coop with a 1% solution of chlorophos, karbofos, trichlormetaphos-3 emulsion. The procedure is carried out 2 times with a break of 2 weeks.
- Ticks inject poison into chickens, which reduces their immunity and appetite. Laying birds can stop nausea, catch any diseases of chickens. Tick fights sunflower oil. They grease the exposed areas of chickens (without fluff). Chicken coop whiten and moisten with diesel floor.
- Fluff eaters live on a bird and feed on its feathers, down, and skin particles, which cause itchiness. The bird may look untidy, losing feathers. The parasite is easy to replace when viewed. Fighting with him is very simple - you need to put a basin with ashes in the hen house so that the birds swim in it.