Holstein breed of cows


Holstein breed of cows or Friesian, refers to the dairy direction. She is valued for her high yield, relative simplicity of content and a lot of other positive qualities. Most often purchased for private farms.

How did the breed appear?

The Holstein breed of cows was bred by American breeder Winsrop Chernery. Since the beginning of the XIX century, he was actively interested in and studied the types and characteristics of black-and-white species. For breeding, several cows were selected from Western European countries (Belgium, Holland, Germany) and by 1852 the breeder brought the first flock of new species to America. Due to the fact that selection was carried out in the Netherlands, this country is considered the birthplace of the species.

Holstein breed

At first, the cow had two names: Holstein and Frisian. It is for this reason that the latter name is still found in old books; it can also be heard from villagers and farmers around the world. Registered species in 1983, at the same time he received his permanent name - Holstein.

Holstein cows are most popular in America. There they make up 90% of all dairy cattle. In the second and third place is Germany and Holland. Although other countries, including England, Belgium, Poland, Ukraine and Russia are not far behind them.

Description of Holstein cows

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Holstein cows are very beautiful, they have a bright outer color and a stately body. The weight of females can reach 850 kg with growth up to 145 cm at the withers, which is very unusual for dairy cows. A mass of bulls can reach up to 1200 kg with an increase in withers - 162 cm.

Holstein breed standards

The body is wedge-shaped and slightly elongated. The back is straight flush with croup, the pelvis is massive, the chest is very wide. The legs are long, strong, but mongrel specimens have weak limbs. The udder is very large with large, prominent veins. The head is small, neat, the ears stick out on the sides, the eyes are kind, dark.

Color black and white (black and motley). The number of black and white spots, as well as their location is strictly individual for each individual. Red-motley and black representatives of the Holstein breed are very rare, at one time they were rejected, and then they became a subspecies of the breed.

What is the breed productivity?

Golshtinsky breed of cows is the world leader in the number of milk yield and milk yield rate. On a regular farm, you can get from milking up to 7,500–9,000 liters of milk per year with a fat content of 3.6–3.8%. Large norms were achieved by Israeli scientists. They proved that with proper nutrition and a balanced diet, a Holstein cow can produce up to 10,000 liters of milk per year with 3% fat.

Holstein breed productivity

It is important to note that red-motley individuals can produce no more than 4,000 liters of milk with a fat content of 3.9% per year. This must be taken into account when buying a rare suit.

It is worth noting that at least the breed has a milky orientation, the individuals have very tasty, tender and even healthy meat. Slaughter yield is 50-55%. Therefore, in some farms it is kept as meat and dairy. Adult cows are usually kept for milk and breeding, and calves are slaughtered upon reaching a certain age. Their meat is highly valued on different continents.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the breed?

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In 1983, just in the year of registration of the species, one of the Holstein breeds gave for more than 300 days 25,000 liters of milk with 2.8% fat. This is an undoubted record, confirmed by written evidence. As you can see the breed can give a lot of milk, but what other advantages are noticed behind it?

  • Due to the excellent health of the cow very quickly digests food and grass, which eats, so that she has an active increase in milk.
  • The Holstein breed of cows quickly adapts to different weather conditions and climates.
  • Neat, affectionate, look after themselves and the purity of the surrounding objects: stall, feeders, drinkers and so on. If they do not clean, they can either start to hurt, or the character will completely deteriorate.
  • Gobies are often used for breeding other species. They are selected for quality and health of previously obtained offspring (heifers, not bulls). Cows only rarely participate in breeding.

    Conditions of keeping Holstein breed cows

Among the shortcomings are the following points.

  • The rate of milk yield and milk yield of the Holstein breed of cows depends directly on the content. If conditions and care are bad, the amount of milk will decrease.
  • Does not belong to economical types. They need a free stall, a proper, balanced diet, and they eat a lot. If you are professionally engaged in milk production - the chick will pay for itself, but if it keeps for itself, it will bring solid losses.

Both summer and winter meals will be costly. In winter, high-quality feed, hay, supplements are needed, and in summer, abundance of grass is provided during grazing. If the grass is not enough - the indicators will fall.

  • Do not differ stress tolerance. Loud sounds, sudden movements can cause the animal to stress, and this will directly affect the milk yield.